مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثقائمة الاعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
تنظيف وتطهير وغسيل واعادة تاهيل الخزانات


معمل تكنولاب البهاء جروب
 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
سابقة خبرتنا فى اختيار خطوط الانتاج لعملاؤنا
 
1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 CLEANING METHODS/طرق التنظيف الكيميائى لازالة القشور والاملاح والرواسب

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: CLEANING METHODS/طرق التنظيف الكيميائى لازالة القشور والاملاح والرواسب   الإثنين سبتمبر 24, 2012 3:07 pm

REMEDIAL CLEANING PROCEDURES.

Cleaning procedures presented herein are general in nature and must be modified to fit specific applications.

Because contractors perform most cleanings, these procedures are provided only for general information purposes only.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1 CLEANING METHODS

2.1.1

MECHANICAL METHODS.

Mechanical methods are the oldest techniques used for removing deposits.

To perform an adequate mechanical-type cleaning, the equipment to be cleaned may need to be partially or entirely dismantled.

Even when equipment is dismantled, some areas may be extremely difficult to reach and clean.

Chemical cleaning has largely replaced mechanical process equipment cleaning as the most satisfactory method of removing deposits; however, mechanical methods such as wire brushing, tumbling, scraping, and abrasive blasting with sand and grit are still employed in special applications.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1.2

CLEANING AGENTS.

Cleaning agents may be broadly classified as being acid, alkaline, organic, or solvent cleaners.

There is no general or universal cleaner that removes all deposits.

The selection of a solvent or cleaning agent is based on the material's ability to remove or dissolve the deposit, as well as on cost considerations, safety hazards, and the effect of the cleaning material on the metals involved.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1.3

GENERAL GUIDANCE AND PROCEDURES FOR PREPARING CLEANING SOLUTIONS.

General guidance and procedures for preparing cleaning solutions of inhibited hydrochloric (muriatic) acid and inhibited sulfamic acid are provided elsewhere.

Inhibited acid contains special chemical inhibitors that prevent the acid cleaner from attacking the base metal while allowing the acid to remove the unwanted corrosion product or scale deposit.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2

HYDROCHLORIC (MURIATIC) ACID.

Inhibited hydrochloric (muriatic) acid in strengths of 5 to 20% is very effective for removing calcium scale and iron oxide; however, for most applications, a 10% solution is adequate.

The following formulation is for a 10% hydrochloric acid solution.

It can be used for removing scale consisting primarily of carbonates with lesser amounts of phosphates, sulfates, and silicates.

This type of scale is typically found in a steam boiler system containing copper alloys that has been treated with a phosphate-based program.

Depending on the specific descaling application, some of these ingredients can be omitted from the formulation.

For example, diethylthiourea is not needed if there is no copper in the system.

It should be noted that if diethylthiourea is used, the waste material should be treated as a hazardous waste.

Where there is only carbonate scale to be removed, ammonium bifluoride, which is used to remove silica-based scales, may be omitted. The addition of a wetting agent is preferable but not absolutely necessary.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.1

EXAMPLE PROCEDURE FOR 10% SOLUTION.

The following is an example procedure that can be used to make 3785 liters (1000 gallons) of a 10% solution:

1.

Add 1079 liters (285 gallons) concentrated (36% strength) hydrochloric acid, ,

Specification for Muriatic Acid (Technical Grade Hydrochloric Acid), to approximately 2271 liters (600 gallons) of water.

2.

Add the proper amount of a corrosion inhibitor, Specification MIL-I-17433, Inhibitor, Hydrochloric Acid, Descaling and Pickling, recommended by the manufacturer to the diluted acid solution.

The inhibitor must be compatible with hydrochloric acid and must not precipitate under any condition during the cleaning operation.

3.

In a separate tank containing about 284 liters (75 gallons) of water:


a) Add 39 kilograms (85 pounds) of the chemical (1,3) diethylthiourea to complex any copper and keep it from depositing.

Do not use the diethylthiourea as the corrosion inhibitor required in paragraph 9-2.2.1(step 2) above.

b) Add 55 kilograms (120 pounds) of ammonium bifluoride, technical grade, to help dissolve certain iron and silica scales.

c) Add 3.79 liters (1 gallon) of wetting agent, Specification MIL-D-16791, Detergents, General Purpose (Liquid, Nonionic).

d) Add the dissolved diethylthiourea, ammonium bifluoride, and wetting agent to the diluted acid solution. Add sufficient water to obtain 3785 liters (1000 gallons).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.2

CARBONATE DEPOSITS.

Carbonate deposits dissolve rapidly in hydrochloric acid, with evolution of free carbon dioxide.

The escaping carbon dioxide tends to create some circulation or agitation of the acid, which ensures the continual contact of fresh acid with the scale.

Once the carbonate has been dissolved from a mixed deposit, a loose, porous structure may be left behind. This residual material can be effectively removed from the equipment either mechanically or by washing with high-pressure water.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.3

PHOSPHATE DEPOSITS.

The removal of phosphate deposits can usually be accomplished by using hydrochloric acid; however, phosphate deposits have a tendency to dissolve rather slowly.

To minimize the total cleaning time, a temperature of 49 to 60 °C (120 to 140 °F) is usually necessary to remove a predominantly phosphate scale.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.4

METALLIC OXIDES.

Most metallic oxides found in deposits can be removed with hydrochloric acid.

The rate of dissolution is a function of temperature and solution velocity.

If copper oxides are present on steel surfaces, special precautions are needed to prevent copper metal plate-out on the steel.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.5

SILICA AND SULFATE SCALE.

Heavy silica and sulfate scale is almost impossible to remove with hydrochloric acid. Special chemicals and procedures are required to remove this scale.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.6

HYDROCHLORIC ACID LIMITATIONS.

Hydrochloric acid is not used to clean stainless steel because the chloride ion in the acid solution may cause pitting or stress corrosion cracking.

Hydrochloric acid is not used for removing scale from galvanized steel surfaces since the galvanizing will corrode. Aluminum is not cleaned using hydrochloric acid.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3

SULFAMIC ACID.

Sulfamic acid is an odorless, white, crystalline solid organic acid that is readily soluble in water.

An inhibited sulfamic acid compound, in a dry powder form, is available under Specification MIL-B-24155, Boiler Scale Removing Compound.

A 5 to 20% solution (2 to 9 kilograms to approximately 38 liters of water [5 to 20 pounds to approximately 10 gallons of water]) is used for removing scale from metal surfaces.

The following information pertaining to sulfamic acid should be considered:

• Carbonate deposits are dissolved in sulfamic acid in a similar manner as in hydrochloric acid. All the common sulfamate salts (including calcium) are very soluble in water.



• The dry powder form of sulfamic acid is safer to handle than a liquid solution of hydrochloric acid; however, aqueous solutions of sulfamic acid are much slower in action and require heating to remove scale.

The sulfamic acid solution is heated to a temperature in the range of 54 to 71 °C (130 to 160 °F) to obtain the same fast cleaning time that is achieved by using hydrochloric acid at room temperature. Sulfamic acid is more effective on sulfate scale than hydrochloric acid.

• Inhibited sulfamic acid, used at temperatures up to 43 °C (110 °F), will not corrode galvanized steel.

Its use is recommended for removing scale in cooling towers, evaporative condensers, and other equipment containing galvanized steel.

In general, sulfamic acid can be applied to equipment while it is operating but should be drained from the system after a few hours, and the concentration of the normally used corrosion inhibitor should be increased several-fold to protect the metal surfaces.

• Commercially prepared descaling compounds consisting of concentrated or diluted inhibited acid (containing 7 to 28% of the acid and inhibitor) may be purchased under various trade names at prices 4 to 30 times the cost of the ingredients themselves if purchased as generic chemicals.

• Advertisements of some of these products may contain claims that cotton clothing and skin are not attacked by the acid.

These claims are usually based on a very dilute solution of the acid that causes a minimal attack on clothes and skin; however, the cost of the cleaning process may be increased because a higher quantity of dilute product may be needed. Be aware that handling acid in any strength must be performed with considerable care, caution, and adherence to safety procedures.


• The cost of diluted acid is expensive; therefore, concentrated acid of government specifications should be purchased and diluted to usable strengths.



The necessary corrosion inhibitors can be added to the dilute acid solution.

Users of small quantities of acid cleaners (possibly less than 38 liters [10 gallons] of diluted acid per year) may not be able to justify purchasing undiluted acid and spending the time, cost, and effort to prepare the cleaning solution; therefore, consider the specific requirements before ordering.

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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: تحضيرات والجرعات للمواد الكيماوية المستخدمة لتنظيف الغلايات ومواسير الغلايات واللهب والمبادلات الحرارية   الثلاثاء سبتمبر 25, 2012 3:22 pm


2.4
CLEANING PREPARATION.

The unit to be cleaned must be isolated from other parts of the system.

For systems that cannot be isolated by the closing of valves, isolation may be accomplished using rubber blankets, wooden bulkheads with seals, inflatable nylon or rubber bags, rubber sponge-covered plugs, or blind flanges and steel plates with rubber seals.

Long lines may require auxiliary connections for chemical cleaning.

The following information should be considered before the cleaning process is started:

• Decide whether to clean using a soaking process or by circulating the cleaning.

In either case, temporary piping or hose lines will be required to connect the cleaning solution mixing tanks or trucks to the unit, with return lines to tanks or drains.

Proper precautions and adequate provisions must be made to protect equipment, isolate control lines, replace liquid level sight glasses with expendable materials, and provide suitable points for checking temperatures.

It may be necessary to remove selected system components if the cleaning process might damage them.

• The entire cleaning procedure/process must be developed in detail before starting chemical cleaning operations.

Factors to be considered include: the methods for controlling temperatures; the means of mixing, heating, and circulating the chemical solution; proper venting of dangerous gases from equipment to a safe area; and means for draining, filling, and flushing under inert atmospheres. Sampling points, test procedures, and control limits should also be established.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.5

METHODS FOR REMOVING SCALE.

Removing scale may be accomplished by circulating the inhibited acid solution through the equipment or by soaking the equipment in a tank of inhibited acid.

Before starting any descaling process, check the acid to make sure it is properly inhibited.

You may check the acid by placing a mild steel coupon into a beaker containing the prepared, diluted acid. You should notice no reaction around the coupon.

If you observe a reaction generating hydrogen gas bubbles around the coupon, add more inhibitor.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.5.1

RECIRCULATING CLEANING PROCESS FOR BOILERS.

The following example is an appropriate procedure for cleaning small boilers or other systems using a hot recirculating inhibited acid solution:

1. Fill the boiler or system with preheated (71 to 77 °C [160 to 170 °F]) dilute inhibited acid solution.

2. Allow the dilute inhibited acid solution to remain in place for 8 hours. Circulate the acid solution for approximately 15 minutes each hour at a rate of about 3.15 liters per second (50 gallons per minute) to ensure good mixing.

3. Keep the temperature of the acid solution preheated at 71 to 77 °C (160 to 170 °F). Measure and record the temperature at least once every 30 minutes.

4. Check and record the acid strength at least every hour (see paragraph 9-2.6).

5. Drain the system by forcing the acid solution out using 276 to 345 kilopascals (40 to 50 pounds per square inch gauge) nitrogen; follow Federal Specification A-A-59503, Nitrogen, Technical, Class 1. If leaks develop when the system is under nitrogen pressure, you must use an alternate method for removing the acid, such as pumping.

6. Fill the boiler with preheated (65 to 71 °C [150 to 160 °F]) water and soak at this temperature for 15 minutes.

7. Drain under nitrogen pressure of 276 to 345 kilopascals (40 to 50 pounds per square inch gauge).


8. Prepare this mild, acid-rinse solution: Add 7.57 liters (2 gallons) of hydrochloric acid (ASTM E 1146) for each 3785 liters (1000 gallons) of water. Also add corrosion inhibitor, Specification MIL-1-17433, in the amount recommended by the manufacturer.

9. Fill the boiler with the preheated (71 to 77 °C [160 to 170 °F]) mild acid-rinse solution and soak for 30 minutes.

10. Drain the mild acid-rinse solution under nitrogen pressure at 276 to 345 kilopascals (40 to 50 pounds per square inch gauge). Maintain a positive pressure of nitrogen in the boiler to prevent outside air from leaking inside.

11. Prepare this passivating solution: To each 3785 liters (1000 gallons) of distilled water (or other water with less than 50 ppm total hardness [as CaCO3]), add 36 kilograms (80 pounds) of passivation compound 0.5% by weight sodium nitrite and 0.25% by weight monosodium phosphate.

12. Fill the boiler with the passivating solution preheated to 65 to 71 °C (150 to 160 °F), circulate for 10 minutes, and hold in the boiler at 65 to 71 °C for an additional 30 minutes.

13. Drain and rinse boiler until the pH of the rinse water is pH 8 to 10.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.5.2

CIRCULATING METHOD WITHOUT HEAT.

The steps below describe a typical process for descaling smaller equipment, such as enclosed vessels or hot water heater coils, without heating the inhibited acid solution:

1. Note that an acid cleaning assembly may consist of a small cart on which is mounted a pump and an 18.9- to 189-liter (5- to 50-gallon) steel or polyethylene tank with a bottom outlet to the pump.

2. Install sill cocks at the bottom of the water inlet of the heat exchanger and the top of the water outlet so that a return line can be connected directly from the acid pump and from the heat exchanger to the acid tank.

3. Prepare an inhibited acid cleaning solution.


4. Pump the acid solution into the heat exchanger through the hose connection. Continue circulation until the reaction is complete, as indicated by foam subsidence or acid depletion.

5. If the scale is not completely removed, check the acid strength in the system. If the acid strength is less than 3%, add fresh acid solution and continue circulation until the remaining scale is removed. Usually an hour of circulation is adequate.

6. Drain the heat exchanger.

7. Neutralize remaining acid by circulating a 1% sodium carbonate (soda ash) solution (about 3.6 kilograms per 38 liters [8 pounds per 100 gallons]) for about 10 minutes.

8. Rinse thoroughly with water until the pH of the rinse water is pH 8 to 10.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.5.3

FILL AND SOAK METHOD

1. Prepare an inhibited dilute acid solution (see paragraphs 9-2.2 and 9-2.3) in a container of suitable size.

2. Depending on the item to be cleaned and the types of scale involved, you may want to place an agitator (mixer) in the tank or install a pump outside the tank to circulate the acid solution. A method to heat the acid may be required, such as a steam coil.

All equipment must be explosion-proof and acid-resistant.

3. Immerse the item to be cleaned in the dilute acid solution. Continue soaking until the reaction is complete as indicated by foam subsidence or acid depletion.

4. If the scale is not completely removed, check the acid strength (see paragraph 9-2.6). If it is less than 3%, add additional acid and continue soaking the items until the remaining scale is dissolved. Usually 1 to 2 hours of soaking is adequate.

5. Remove item from tank.


6. To neutralize remaining acid, immerse the item in a 1% sodium carbonate (soda ash) solution (about 3.6 kilograms per 38 liters [8 pounds per 100 gallons]) for 2 to 3 minutes.

7. Rinse the item thoroughly with water.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.6

CHECKING ACID SOLUTION STRENGTH.

The initial strength of the dilute inhibited acid will vary from 5 to 20%, although 10% is typical.

As the acid is consumed by dissolving the scale, the strength of the acid decreases.

The strength of the acid solution should be measured periodically during a cleaning operation.

When the acid strength falls below 3%, the solution may be discarded since most of its scale-dissolving capability will have been used.

Use the following procedure to check the acid strength:
Apparatus:

Burette, 25 milliliters (0.8 ounce) automatic (for sodium hydroxide solution)
Stirring rod

Bottle, with dropper, 50 milliliters (2 ounces) (for phenolphthalein indicator solution)
Graduated cylinder, 10 milliliters (0.3 ounce
)
Casserole, porcelain, heavy duty, 210-milliliter (7.1-ounce) capacity

Reagents:

Sodium hydroxide solution, 1.0 normality (N)


Phenolphthalein indicator solution, 0.5%

Method:

1. Measure 10 milliliters of acid solution accurately in the graduated cylinder.

2. Pour into the casserole.

3. Add 2 to 4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution to the casserole and stir.

4. Fill the automatic burette with the 1.0 N sodium hydroxide solution; allow the excess to drain back into the bottle.

5. While stirring the acid solution constantly, add sodium hydroxide solution from the burette to the casserole until color changes to a permanent faint pink. This is the endpoint. Read the burette to the nearest 0.1 milliliter (0.003 ounce).

Results:

1. For hydrochloric acid:

Percent hydrochloric acid = milliliter of 1.0 N sodium hydroxide x 0.36

2. For sulfamic acid:

Percent sulfamic acid = milliliter of 1.0 N sodium hydroxide x 0.97
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: CLEANING METHODS/طرق التنظيف الكيميائى لازالة القشور والاملاح والرواسب   الثلاثاء سبتمبر 25, 2012 3:32 pm

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CLEANING METHODS/طرق التنظيف الكيميائى لازالة القشور والاملاح والرواسب
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