مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
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والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
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 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
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1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


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technolab el-bahaa group


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technolab el-bahaa group


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technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

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تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: السولار (طرق تكريره/تنقيته/استخدامه فى صناعة المنظفات والمبيدات)   السبت مارس 23, 2013 4:46 pm

Kerosene.

مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

عميد دكتور

بهاء بدر الدين محمود

استشارى كيميائى

01229834104

Kerosene is a refined middle-distillate petroleum product that finds considerable use as a jet fuel and around the world in cooking and space heating.

When used as a jet fuel, some of the critical qualities are freeze point, flash point, and smoke point.

Commercial jet fuel has a boiling range of about 375°-525° F, and military jet fuel 130°-550° F.

Kerosene, with less-critical specifications, is used for lighting, heating, solvents, and blending into diesel fuel.

Kerosene is an oil distillate commonly used as a fuel or solvent.

It is a thin, clear liquid consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons that boil between 302°F and 527°F (150°C and 275°C).

While kerosene can be extracted from coal, oil shale, and wood, it is primarily derived from refined petroleum.

Before electric lights became popular, kerosene was widely used in oil lamps and was one of the most important refinery products.

Today kerosene is primarily used as a heating oil, as fuel in jet engines, and as a solvent for insecticide sprays.

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History
Petroleum byproducts have been used since ancient times as adhesives and water proofing agents.

Over 2,000 years ago, Arabian scientists explored ways to distill petroleum into individual components that could be used for specialized purposes.

As new uses were discovered, demand for petroleum increased.

Kerosene was discovered in 1853 by Abraham Gesner.

A British physician, Gesner developed a process to extract the inflammable liquid from asphalt, a waxy petroleum mixture.

The term kerosene is, in fact, derived from the Greek word for wax.

Sometimes spelled kerosine or kerosiene, it is also called coal oil because of its asphalt origins.

Kerosene was an important commodity in the days before electric lighting and it was the first material to be chemically extracted on a large commercial scale.

Mass refinement of kerosene and other petroleum products actually began in 1859 when oil was discovered in the United States.

An entire industry evolved to develop oil drilling and purification techniques.

Kerosene continued to be the most important refinery product throughout the late 1890s and early 1900s.

It was surpassed by gasoline in the 1920s with the increasing popularity of the internal combustion engine.

Other uses were found for kerosene after the demise of oil lamps, and today it is primarily used in residential heating and as a fuel additive.

In the late 1990s, annual production of kerosene had grown to approximately 1 billion gal (3.8 billion 1) in the United States alone.

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Raw Materials

Kerosene is extracted from a mixture of petroleum chemicals found deep within the earth.

This mixture consists of oil, rocks, water, and other contaminates in subterranean reservoirs made of porous layers of sandstone and carbonate rock.

The oil itself is derived from decayed organisms that were buried along with the sediments of early geological eras.

Over tens of millions of years, this organic residue was converted to petroleum by a pair of complex chemical processes known as diagenesis and catagensis.

Diagenesis, which occurs below 122°F (50°C), involves both microbial activity and chemical reactions such as dehydration, condensation, cyclization, and polymerization.

Catagenesis occurs between 122°F and 392°F (50°C and 200°C) and involves thermocatalytic cracking, decarboxylation, and hydrogen disproportionation.

The combination of these complex reactions creates the hydrocarbon mixture known as petroleum.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Manufacturing
Process

Crude oil recovery

1 The first step in the manufacture of kerosene is to collect the crude oil.

Most oil supplies are buried deep beneath the earth and there are three primary types of drilling operations used to bring it to the surface.

One method, Cable-Tooled Drilling, involves using a jackhammer chisel to dislodge rock and dirt to create a tunnel to reach oil deposits that reside just below the earth's surface.

A second process, Rotary Drilling, is used to reach oil reservoirs that are much deeper underground.

This process requires sinking a drill pipe with a rotating steel bit into the ground.

This rotary drill spins rapidly to pulverize earth and rock.

The third drilling process is Off Shore Drilling and it uses a large ocean borne platform to lower a shaft to the ocean floor.

2 When any of these drilling processes break into an underground reservoir, a geyser erupts as dissolved hydrocarbon gases push the crude oil to the surface.

These gases will force about 20% of the oil out of the well. Water is then pumped into the well to flush more of the oil out.

This flushing process will recover about 50% of the buried oil.

By adding a surfactant to the water even more oil can be recovered. However, even with the most rigorous flushing it is still impossible to remove 100% of the oil trapped underground.

The crude oil recovered is pumped into large storage tanks and transported to a refining site.

3 After the oil is collected, gross contaminants such as gases, water, and dirt are removed.

Desalting is one cleansing operation that can be performed both in the oilfield and at the refinery site.

After the oil has been washed, the water is separated from the oil.

The properties of the crude oil are evaluated to determine which petroleum products can best be extracted from it.

The key properties of interest include density, sulfur content, and other physical properties of the oil related to its carbon chain distribution.

Since crude oil is a combination of many different hydrocarbon materials that are miscible in one another, it must be separated into its components before it can be turned into kerosene.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Separation

4 Distillation is one type of separation process involves heating the crude oil to separate its components.

In this process the stream of oil is pumped into the bottom of a distillation column where it is heated.

The lighter hydrocarbon components in the mixture rise to the top of the column and most of the high boiling-point fractions are left at the bottom.

At the top of the column these lighter vapors reach the condenser which cools them and returns them to a liquid state.

The columns used to separate lighter oils are proportionally tall and thin (up to 116 ft [35 m] tall) because they only require atmospheric pressure.

Tall distillation columns can more efficiently separate hydrocarbon mixtures because they allow more time for the high boiling compounds to condense before they reach the top of the column.

To separate some of the heavier fractions of oil, distillations columns must be operated at approximately one tenth of atmospheric pressure (75 mm Hg).

These vacuum columns are structured to be very wide and short to help control pressure fluctuations. They can be over 40 ft (12 m) in diameter.


5 The condensed liquid fractions can be collected separately.

The fraction that is collected between 302°F and 482°F (150°C and 250°C) is kerosene.

By comparison, gasoline is distilled between 86°F and 410°F (30°C and 210°C). By recycling the distilled kerosene through the column multiple times its purity can be increased.

This recycling process is known as refluxing.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Purification

6 Once the oil has been distilled into its fractions, further processing in a series of chemical reactors is necessary to create kerosene.

Catalytic reforming, akylkation, catalytic cracking, and hydroprocessing are four of the major processing techniques used in the conversion of kerosene.

These reactions are used to control the carbon chain distribution by adding or removing carbon atoms from the hydrocarbon backbone.

These reaction processes involve transferring the crude oil fraction into a separate vessel where it is chemically converted to kerosene.

7 Once the kerosene has been reacted, additional extraction is required to remove secondary contaminants that can affect the oil's burning properties.

Aromatic compounds, which are carbon ring structures such as benzene, are one class of contaminant that must be removed.

Most extraction processes are conducted in large towers that

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The distilling process of kerosene.

maximize the contact time between the kerosene and the extraction solvent.

Solvents are chosen based on the solubility of the impurities.

In other words, the chemical impurities are more soluble in the solvent than they are the kerosene.

Therefore, as the kerosene flows through the tower, the impurities will tend to be drawn into the solvent phase.

Once the contaminants have been pulled out of the kerosene, the solvent is removed leaving the kerosene in a more purified state.

The following extraction techniques are used to purify kerosene.

The Udex extraction process became popular in the United States during the 1970s. It uses a class of chemicals known as glycols as solvents.

Both diethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol are used because they have a high affinity for aromatic compounds.

The Sulfolane process was created by the Shell company in 1962 and is still used in many extraction units 40 years later.

The solvent used in this process is called sulfolane, and it is a strong polar compound that is more efficient than the glycol systems used in the Udex process.

It has a greater heat capacity and greater chemical stability.

This process uses a piece of equipment known as a rotating disk contractor to help purify the kerosene.

The Lurgi Arosolvan Process uses N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone mixed with water or glycol which increases of selectivity of the solvent for contaminants.

This process involves a multiple stage extracting towers up to 20 ft (6 m) in diameter and 116 ft (35 m) high.

The dimethyl sulfoxide process involves two separate extraction steps that increase the selectivity of the solvent for the aromatic contaminants.

This allows extraction of these contaminants at lower temperatures.

In addition, chemicals used in this process are non-toxic and relatively inexpensive.

It uses a specialized column, known as a Kuhni column, that is up to 10 ft (3 m) in diameter.

The Union Carbide process uses the solvent tetraethylene glycol and adds a second extraction step.

It is somewhat more cumbersome than other glycol processes.

The Formex process uses N-formyl morpholine and a small percentage of water as the solvent and is flexible enough to extract aromatics from a variety of hydrocarbon materials.

The Redox process (Recycle Extract Dual Extraction) is used for kerosene destined for use in diesel fuel.

It improves the octane number of fuels by selectively removing aromatic contaminants.

The low aromatic kerosene produced by these process is in high demand for aviation fuel and other military uses.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Final processing

8 After extraction is complete, the refined kerosene is stored in tanks for shipping.

It is delivered by tank trucks to facilities where the kerosene is packaged for commercial use.

Industrial kerosene is stored in large metal tanks, but it may be packaged in small quantities for commercial use.

Metal containers may be used because kerosene is not a gas and does not require pressurized storage vessels.

However, its flammability dictates that it must be handled as a hazardous substance.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Quality Control

The distillation and extraction processes are not completely efficient and some processing steps may have to be repeated to maximize the kerosene production.

For example, some of the unconverted hydrocarbons may by separated by further distillation and recycled for another pass into the converter.

By recycling the petroleum waste through the reaction sequence several times, the quality of kerosene production can be optimized.

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By products/Waste

Some portion of the remaining petroleum fractions that can not be converted to kerosene may be used in other applications such as lubricating oil.

In addition, some of the contaminants extracted during the purification process can be used commercially.

These include certain aromatic compounds such as paraffin.

The specifications for kerosene and these other petroleum byproducts are set by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the American Petroleum Institute (API).
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The Future

The future of kerosene depends on the discovery of new applications as well as the development of new methods of production.

New uses include increasing military demand for high grade kerosene to replace much of its diesel fuel with JP-8, which is a kerosene based jet fuel.

The diesel fuel industry is also exploring a new process that involves adding kerosene to low sulfur diesel fuel to prevent it from gelling in cold weather.

Commercial aviation may benefit by reducing the risk of jet fuel explosion by creating a new low-misting kerosene.

In the residential sector, new and improved kerosene heaters that provide better protection from fire are anticipated to increase demand.

As demand for kerosene and its byproducts increases, new methods of refining and extracting kerosene will become even more important.

One new method, developed by ExxonMobil, is a low-cost way to extract high purity normal paraffin from kerosene.

This process uses ammonia that very efficiently absorbs the contaminants.

This method uses vapor phase fixed-bed adsorption technology and yields a high level of paraffin that are greater than 90% pure.

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Insecticide

Kerosene has been found to be an effective pesticide. It is effective at killing a large number of insects, notably bed bugs and head lice. It can also be applied to standing pools of water in order to kill mosquito larvae.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: السولار (طرق تكريره/تنقيته/استخدامه فى صناعة المنظفات والمبيدات)   السبت مارس 23, 2013 4:52 pm

[img][/img]

برج تقطير وتكرير السولار

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مُساهمةموضوع: برج التقطير للكيروسين   السبت مارس 23, 2013 5:04 pm

Atmospheric Distillation Tower.

a. At the refinery, the desalted crude feedstock is preheated using recovered process heat.

The feedstock then flows to a direct-fired crude charge heater where it is fed into the vertical distillation column just above the bottom, at pressures slightly above atmospheric and at temperatures ranging from 650° to 700° F (heating crude oil above these temperatures may cause undesirable thermal cracking).

All but the heaviest fractions flash into vapor.

As the hot vapor rises in the tower, its temperature is reduced. Heavy fuel oil or asphalt residue is taken from the bottom.

At successively higher points on the tower, the various major products including lubricating oil, heating oil, kerosene, gasoline, and uncondensed gases (which condense at lower temperatures) are drawn off.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

b. The fractionating tower,

a steel cylinder about 120 feet high, contains horizontal steel trays for separating and collecting the liquids.

At each tray, vapors from below enter perforations and bubble caps.

They permit the vapors to bubble through the liquid on the tray, causing some condensation at the temperature of that tray.

An overflow pipe drains the condensed liquids from each tray back to the tray below, where the higher temperature causes re-evaporation.

The evaporation, condensing, and scrubbing operation is repeated many times until the desired degree of product purity is reached.

Then side streams from certain trays are taken off to obtain the desired fractions.

Products ranging from uncondensed fixed gases at the top to heavy fuel oils at the bottom can be taken continuously from a fractionating tower.

Steam is often used in towers to lower the vapor pressure and create a partial vacuum.

The distillation process separates the major constituents of crude oil into so-called straight-run products.

Sometimes crude oil is "topped" by distilling off only the lighter fractions, leaving a heavy residue that is often distilled further under high vacuum.
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مُساهمةموضوع: تنقية السولار بالزيوليت والاتابولجيت   السبت مارس 23, 2013 5:10 pm




a LVM (Low Volatile Matter) attapulgite for kerosene purification and the filtration of
organic and water effluents

Properties

a thermally treated attapulgite (hydrated magnesium aluminium silicate) used advantageously for the purification of petroleum distillates, It is particularly standardised its use in the clay beds employed in the MEROX process for kerosene and jet fuel production in refineries.

made of mechanically highly stable granules of 0.3–0.9 mm size.

Its main role is to remove surfactants and water traces in the back end of refining process.

Surfactants used in the process as additives or carried by the kerosene feed:

Naphthenic acids un-removed in previous treatments

Chemical cleaning compounds used for cleaning vessels & pipes

Naphtenate and phenolic water from previous steps

Chemicals as dispersants, antioxidants, deicing compounds and corrosion inhibitors.

Water

The absorption of these compounds is key when it must be avoided the possibility of formation of emulsions that can carry water to the vessels containing finally the fuel.
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مُساهمةموضوع: السولار   السبت مارس 23, 2013 5:28 pm

السولار


سائل خفيف شفاف عديم اللون، أو أصفر باهت يميل إلى الزرقة، قابل للاشتعال، يتألف من مزيج هدروكربونات تتكون في أثناء التقطير المباشر للبترول، ويشكل السولار مكوناً أساسياً لوقود المحركات النفاثة.

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لمحة تاريخية

ظهر السولار في بداية القرن التاسع عشر مادّة تستخدم في مصابيح الإضاءة قبل اكتشاف الكهرباء، وعُرف في البلاد العربية باسم «زيت الكاز»، واستمر ذلك حتى انتشار مصافي النفط وإنتاج مادة الكيروسين للاستخدام في مجالات متعددة كالزراعة والصناعة.

ثم تطور إنتاج هذه المادة لتصبح وقوداً للطائرات النفاثة، ومع التقدم العلمي والتكنولوجي للطيران والرغبة في إنتاج سولار بمواصفات فنية عالية تتماشى مع تطور صناعة المحركات النفاثة توسع إنتاج مادة السولار تبعاً لتعدد وظائف الاستعمال سواء كانت الأرضية أو الجوية.
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التركيب الكيميائي للسولار وأنواعه

هو المنتج الرئيس لعملية التكرير من حيث حجم الإنتاج، تراوح كثافته بين 0.77- 0.82.

يستقطر السولار من القطفة النفطية ذات مدى الغليان 60 -250 ْم، ويحتوي على سلاسل هدروكربونية C8 - C16 أحادي وثنائي وحلقي البرافينات والنفتينات، وأيضاً أحادي وثنائي العطريات؛ إضافة إلى الحموض النفتينية والأليفاتية…

وتعد الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية للسولار - وخاصة وقود الطائرات- عوامل رئيسية لتشغيل المحركات النفاثة بفعالية كبيرة ومدة طويلة، وتتمثل بقابلية تطاير منخفضة وجودة في الاشتعال مع احتراق ثابت داخل المحرك، ولزوجة كافية، إضافة إلى كثافة مناسبة،

كما يُضاف إلى السولار وخاصة سولار الطيران إضافات كيمياوية تساعد على تشتيت الكهرباء الساكنة، وتعطيل الفعالية الكيميائية لبعض المعادن، ومنع الأكسدة، والتآكل، وتجمد الماء، والتدخين، وكذلك إضافات تزليق وإضافات حيوية.
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ومن أنواع السولار:

1ـ سولار الطائرات: يتميز سولار الطائرات بأنواع مختلفة بحسب درجة تجمده، أهمها:

أ ـ النفاث آ (JET A): وهو الاسم التجاري لوقود المحركات النفاثة، يتجمد بالدرجة -40 ْم

ب ـ النفاث آ ـ 1 (JET A-1): وهو الاسم التجاري لوقود المحركات النفاثة، يتجمد بالدرجة -47 ْم

ج ـ النفّاث ب (JET B): وهو الاسم التجاري لوقود المحركات النفاثة، يتجمد بالدرجة -58 ْم.

د ـ النفاث ج ب ـ 4 (JP-4): وهو الاسم التجاري لوقود المحركات النفاثة، يتجمد بالدرجة -60 ْم.

هـ ـ النفاث ج ب ـ 5 (JP-5): وهو الاسم التجاري لوقود المحركات النفاثة، يتجمد بالدرجة -70 ْم.

و ـ النفاث ج ب ـ 8 (JP-8): وهو الاسم التجاري لوقود المحركات النفاثة، يحتوي على إضافات من مواد منع تجمد وتزليق ومنع التآكل.

ز ـ النفاث ج ب ـ 8 ـ 100 (JP-8-100): الاسم العسكري لوقود المحركات النفاثة، يحتوي على إضافات متعددة الأغراض لزيادة كفاءة الطائرات وإطالة عمر محركاتها وساعات العمل وتقليل أعمال الصيانة.

2ـ المحرّكات والآلات: وهو وقود لمحركات الجرارات والمعدّات الزراعية وبعض الآلات المائية...

3ـ الإضاءة: وهو وقود مصابيح زيت الكاز المعروفة.

4ـ التدفئة والتسخين: هو وقود مواقد زيت الكاز المنزلية والمعامل الصغيرة والمدافئ الزراعية.
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طرائق تصنيع السولار ومعالجته

يتمّ الحصول على السولار بطريقة التقطير الجزئي المباشر للنفط بحسب درجات حرارة الغليان، وذلك بتسخين النفط في أفران أنبوبية، ثم ضخه إلى أنبوب تقطير.

ويفصل بعدها إلى مجموعات (مجموعة البنزين الخام، مجموعة السولار الخام، وغيرها).

تعالج مجموعة السولار الخام في وحدة معالجة السولار حسب درجة التقطير والقطفة النفطية، ودرجة التجمد،

وتخضع للمعالجة على مراحل قبل الاستخدام، كالتصفية والامتزاز وسحب الرطوبة والتنقية من الشوائب الميكانيكية، مثل الغبار والرمال والمعلقات الصلبة.

وتعالج مجموعة السولار الخام بالمُحِلاّت المائية لنزع الكبريت ومركباته، وبالمُحِلات القلوية أو بالتنقية الفيزيائية، ثم توزّع على الخزانات من أجل الاستهلاك. وهناك أيضاً طرائق أخرى لتصنيع السولار بالتكسير أو التكرير المباشر.
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اختبارات السولار

يخضع السولار عامة إلى اختبارات متعددة. وخاصة سولار الطيران للحفاظ على جودته في أثناء التداول والصرف والتخزين.

ومن أهمّ هذه الاختبارات:

الوزن النوعي والكثافة والقيمة الحرارية الدنيا، واللزوجة ومنحني الغليان وضغط البخار، والحموضة وتآكل الصفيحة النحاسية، ونقطة الوميض والالتهابية، ونقطة الدخان، وعدد مقياس البريق ونسبة الصموغ، ونقطة التجمد، والثبات الحراري، وقياس الكهرباء الساكنة، والتلوث الحيوي كالبكتريا والفطور والخمائر.

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استخدامات السولار

يستخدم السولار في مجالات متعددة:

1ـ في الحياة العامة: يستخدم للأغراض المنزلية في الطبخ والتدفئة والإضاءة.

2ـ في المجالات الزراعية: يستخدم في المبيدات الحشرية ولقتل الأعشاب الضارة وفي صناعة الأدوية الزراعية ووقوداً للمعدات والآلات والمدافئ الزراعية والجرارات وبعض الآلات المائية.

3ـ في المجالات الصناعية: يستخدم في الآلات والآليات والمعدات وفي المعامل الصغيرة، والمواقد الصناعية، ومذيباً في الدهانات والبرنيق (الورنيش).

4ـ في مجالات النقل والمواصلات: يستخدم وقوداً في معظم الطائرات المدنية والعسكرية، وفي تعبيد الطرقات.
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مُساهمةموضوع: مواصفات السولار   الأحد مارس 24, 2013 4:13 pm

SPECIFICATION
KEROSENE

TEST

SPECIFICATIONS

METHODS
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DISTILLATION:


10% DISTILLED @ ºC MAX. 205

RECOVERED AT 170 ºC %VOL. MAX. 50

RECOVERED AT 200 ºC %VOL. MIN. 20

RECOVERED AT 210 ºC %VOL. MAX. 90

FINAL BOILING POINT ºC MAX. 300

LOSS %VOL. MAX. 2

ASTM D-86

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DENSITY AT 15 ºC MG/M1

MAX. 0.82

ASTM D-1298

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COLOR SAYBOLT

MIN. 16

ASTM D-156

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TOTAL SULFUR %WT.

MAX. 0.250

ASTM D-1266

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R S H P.P.M.

MAX. 30

ASTM D-3227

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FLASH POINT ºC

MIN. 38

ASTM D-56

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CORROSION, COOPER (3HR. AT 50 ºC )

CLASSIFICATION
MAX. 1

ASTM D-130

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SMOKE POINT MM.

MIN. 24

ASTM D-1322
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مُساهمةموضوع: ماهو السولار   الأحد مارس 24, 2013 4:21 pm

Kerosene

Kerosene has more than one chemical structure because it contains carbons from 12 carbons to 15 carbons.

The molecular formulas can range from C12H26 to C15H32

An example of a kerosene structure:

The Making of Kerosene

Kerosene is made by refining petroleum oil.

Petroleum oil is also known as crude oil.

The first step to refining petroleum oil is washing the oil to get rid of salts and inorganic materials.

Next, the crude oil goes through fractional distillation. During fractional distillation, crude oil is placed in a distillation tower.

The tower is then heated to a very high temperature.

Hydrocarbons separate due to the heat because hydrocarbons boil at a different temperature. Kerosene boils from 200° C to 300° C.

Fractional distillation creates 5% to 20% or kerosene.

Kerosene can also be obtained from coal, wood and shade oil, but kerosene is mainly obtained through refining petroleum oil.


Kerosene as Poison

Kerosene is poisonous when inhaled or ingested. Some symptoms of being poisoned by kerosene include burning of the skin, irritation of the skin, breathing difficulties, throat swelling, dizziness and drowsiness.

It can also cause headaches, loss of balance, euphoria, stomach pains, vomit and vision loss.

Being exposed to kerosene may lead to burning in the passage where food flows through and blood traces in feces.

Low blood pressure is another symptom of kerosene poisoning, this usually occurs at a rapid pace.


“Cure”-o-sene

Although kerosene is poisonous, kerosene can be used as a type of medicine called folk medicine.

It can be used to cure snakebites and kill lice.

Some people use kerosene to prevent mosquitoes from breeding.

People living in developing countries have difficulties finding medicine and use kerosene to replace alcohol to treats cuts and burns.

It can also be used against athlete’s foot and hemorrhoids.

Other Beneficial Qualities

Kerosene can be a solvent or a fuel.

An example of fuel is jet fuel. Kerosene acts a solvent in insecticide spray.

Kerosene can also be used for heating homes, this is most popular in Asia.

Camping stoves can find use of this hydrocarbon as an alternative fuel.

Kerosene can be used to extend the life of gasoline and is able to prevent gasoline from freezing during the winter.
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مُساهمةموضوع: السولار كمذيب للمبيدات   الأحد مارس 24, 2013 4:44 pm

(a) Kerosene.

Kerosene is used primarily as a solvent for
insecticides, but kerosene itself has considerable insecticidal effect.

A refined, odorless
form is normally used as the carrier in household sprays.

It has been used as a
mosquito larvacide.

Kerosene is generally quite toxic to plants and can be dangerous to
man if not properly handled.

Ordinary and deodorized kerosene are available from
military standard stock.

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What is kerosene?

Kerosene is a liquid fuel, similar in composition to diesel, obtained from the distillation of
crude oil.

In the UK, kerosene is also known as ‘paraffin’.
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What is kerosene used for?

The main use of kerosene is as a base for aviation fuel but it also has application as a
solvent in paints, cleaners, pesticides and some eye medicines.

It was previously a common
fuel for stoves, heaters and lamps and is still used today as a fuel for home (‘oil’) central
heating systems.

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Kerosene is a major component (> 60%) of aviation (jet) fuels and has been used to control
mosquito larvae.

Kerosene is also used as a solvent (for example in cleaners, pesticides and
paints), degreaser and domestic fuel.

A deodorised form of kerosene (Deobase™) is
sometimes used in domestic products.

Approximately 45 million tons of kerosene was
transported within the EU in 2001, of which 14 million tons were transported within the UK.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: السولار (طرق تكريره/تنقيته/استخدامه فى صناعة المنظفات والمبيدات)   الثلاثاء مارس 26, 2013 9:26 am

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السولار (طرق تكريره/تنقيته/استخدامه فى صناعة المنظفات والمبيدات)
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