مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثقائمة الاعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
تنظيف وتطهير وغسيل واعادة تاهيل الخزانات


معمل تكنولاب البهاء جروب
 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
سابقة خبرتنا فى اختيار خطوط الانتاج لعملاؤنا
 
1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة

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مُساهمةموضوع: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:17 am

Swimming Pool Problems
Most, if not all swimming pool problems are a result of inadequate pool water maintenance. Regular testing andcorrection of the pool water chemistry will ensure you a low-maintenance, sparkling, clean swimming pool all year round.

You will also save money on chemicals by preventing situations requiring expensive treatment such as chlorine shock treatment and the use of algaecide.

Very often an imbalance in the pool water or harmful organisms are not visible and their results not immediately apparent; the importance of monitoring the swimming pool water cannot be stressed enough. 

After all, our health and the health of 
our families are at risk.


The most commonly encountered pool water problems are:
Swimming pool algae

Pool-related illness

Burning eyes

Chlorine smell

Cloudy pool water

[url=http://www.havuz.org/pool-problems/pool-staining.htm]Staining of the pool
[/url]
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:20 am

Swimming Pool Algae
By far the most regular complaint of swimming pool owners is algae.

This is because the algae is visible and unsightly.

There are over 21,000 species of algae known to man but only a fraction of these are encountered in swimming pools.

Algae does not cause disease.

It is a plant that turns sunlight and carbon dioxide into food and provides nutrients for bacteria which can then multiply rapidly (and may cause illness).

When there is algae present in the pool water, the chlorine is used up rapidly trying to combat its growth. This process has a tendency to raise the pH, thus decreasing the efficiency of the remaining free chlorine.

Unchecked algae growth can turn the swimming pool cloudy or makes the pool water green and results in foul odours and tastes.

Black algae, which is more difficult to control than green or blue-green algae, can also stain the swimming pool's walls and floor.

Prevention is better than cure.

Adequate levels of free chlorine will prevent algae from growing out of control. When algae growth is noticed, it requires harsh treatment.

Usually shock treatment with chlorine or an algaecide is recommended. 

If the pool has a mineral sanitiser such as the Pool Wizard installed, algae growth is a sign that you need a refill. 

Algae cannot grow in water sanitised with the Pool Wizard, provided the water is properly balanced.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:23 am

Waterborne Pool Illnesses
Swimming pools are exposed bodies of water and are thus subject to contamination.

The contamination can be carried into the pool water by the environment (e.g. wind, rain) or by swimmers.

There has been a dramatic increase in infections and infectious diseases from swimming pools over the past few years. Some strains of bacteria and viruses have built up resistance to the chlorine we use as a sanitiser in our swimming pools.

Others are destroyed very slowly.

Consequently, there has been an increasing demand for alternative sanitisers able to quickly and effectively destroy the disease carrying organisms.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to prevent bacteria and viruses from entering the pool water.

In swimming pools with a high swimmer load, the level of contaminants entering the water are especially high.

Ill or recovering people are requested to abstain from swimming, but many ignore this plea. Chlorine breaks down very fast in the presence of high contamination and swimmer load and due to the effects of the sun's UV rays and heat.

With these factors in mind, many swimming pool maintainers over-chlorinate the pool water in the hope that illness can be prevented.

This creates another dilemma - chlorine, too, can cause health problems and overuse should be avoided at all costs. 

Mineral water sanitisers such as the Pool Wizard can reduce chlorine consumption by 75%, thus creating a safer and healthier swimming environment. 

The Pool Wizard also effectively destroys potentially harmful bacteria, viruses and algae before they can strike.


A total reliance on chlorine for swimming pool disinfection is illogical in the light of research results.

There is unequivocal proof of the efficacy of non-chlorine additives or pool water treatments that can supplement chlorine to create safer pool water.

Elements such as copper and silver have become widely accepted as potent anti-bacterial and anti-viral agents. 

Patented products like the Pool Wizard make good use of this knowledge in producing swimming pool disinfectants able to cope with the micro-organisms that chlorine cannot destroy.

These are some of the diseases that can result from infected pool water:


  • Gastroenteritis, Dysentery, Amoebic dysentery, Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Giardiasis,

  • Cryptosporidiosis, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Dermatitis.



Below are some references to illnesses resulting from swimming pool water:


  • Chlorine can take up to 4 days to neutralise Cryptosporidium parvum, the causes of severe illness and transmitted through pool water, despite a balanced pool chemistry and free chlorine levels 0f 2.oppm. (CDC - Emerging Infectious Diseases)



  • . . . out of 282 pools tested, over 50% of the pools which had a chlorine level above 2.0 ppm still had both E. Coli andPseudonomas bacteria present. (Dr. Peter Gaffney, Professor of Microbiology at Georgia State University, "Microbiological Evaluation of Swimming Pools in Fulton County Georgia (Atlanta)")



  • "Swimmers had significantly more eye, ear and skin infections than non-swimmers, largely because of high bacteria and virus levels in pools, according to Illinois Public Health Researcher, Linda Berrafato." (USA Today)



  • "Swimming asthma" has been observed, especially in young children, as a result of breathing in the by-products (trihalomethanes) of chlorine used in swimming pools. (Reuters Health; Toxicology Letters, 72)



  • Liver, kidney or central nervous system problems and increased risk of cancer have been observed as a result of the by-products (trihalomethanes) of chlorine use. (EPA - Safe Water Regulations)



  • Eye and nose irritation, stomach discomfort and anemia can occur as a result of chlorine (Cl[size=undefined]2[/size] or ClO[size=undefined]2[/size]) orchloramines in the water. (EPA - Safe Water Regulations)



  • Outbreaks of illness from recreational water in 2000 were 228% higher compared to 2 years earlier. (Center for Disease Control)



  • Diarrhea has been steadily on the rise since the mid-1980s as new germs appear that are increasingly resistant to chlorine used to disinfect pools. (Michael Beach, CDC medical epidemiologist)



  • "The EPA has raised skin absorption of chlorine to its top 10 carcinogen Watch List." (The Washington Post, June 1

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:26 am

Cloudy Swimming Pool Water
Clear, sparkling pool water is a joy to look at. A cloudy swimming pool loses its beauty and becomes uninviting for swimmers.
Cloudy swimming pool water can result from one of several factors:

  • the pH is too high;

  • the total alkalinity level is too high;

  • the stabiliser level is too high;

  • the chlorine level is too low;

  • the calcium hardness level is too high;

  • the level of total dissolved solids is too high;

  • there are high levels of metals (discoloured pool water);

  • there is a lot of pool algae growth;

  • the filter needs cleaning or servicing;

  • there is a large quantity of microscopic particles in the pool water.

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:26 am

Burning Eyes and Nose
If the swimmers complain about burning eyes and nose, or dry, irritated skin, there is most certainly a problem with the pool water chemistry.
This could be caused by various factors:

  • the pH is too high or too low;

  • the total alkalinity level is too low;

  • the calcium hardness level is too high.


By testing the swimming pool water and correcting these levels, the problem should disappear.
Even at the recommended levels, chlorine can cause eye irritations. To enable effective sanitation at lower chlorine levels, consider installing a mineral pool sanitiser (e.g. Pool Wizard) which requires only about 25% of the chlorine normally necessary.
 
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:27 am

Pool Chlorine Smell
Many pool owners complain that the swimming pool water is not really clean, but they can smell the chlorine so there must be enough in the water to ensure disinfection.
Unfortunately, if you can smell chlorine, the swimming pool hasn't got enough - strange, isn't it?! What you can smell are chloramines. These are formed when insufficient levels of free available chlorine react with ammonia and other nitrogen-containing compounds (swimmer waste, sweat, urine, etc.), resulting in their only being partially broken down (creating halomethanes).
To confirm this, measure the free available chlorine and total chlorine. You will be able to calculate the unwanted, irritating combined chlorine compounds as follows:
Combined chlorine = total chlorine - free chlorine
You will probably find that there is little or no free available chlorine and too much combined chlorine. A chlorine shock treatment or other pool water sanitiser is necessary to complete the disinfection and dissipate the combined chlorine.
The combined chlorine in the pool water can also be destroyed with a non-chlorine shock if you prefer not to use large quantities of chl
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:28 am

Staining of the Swimming Pool
Stains can, and do reduce the attractiveness of a swimming pool. By regularly testing and maintaining the water chemistry of a pool, we can avoid pool problems such as staining. The cost of regular pool water maintenance is far lower than the cost of stain removers, acid washing or swimming pool resurfacing.
Staining of the swimming pool's surfaces does not result in illness, but has a negative aesthetic effect on the bathers at the swimming pool. The swimmers have the impression that the swimming pool looks dirty and this detracts from the swim.
Staining can result from several factors:

  • the pH is too low;

  • the total alkalinity level is too low;

  • the calcium hardness level is too low;

  • the level of total dissolved solids is too high;

  • there are high levels of metals.


By testing and correcting the above pool water parameters, the staining should stop. Existing stains will, however, still require special treatment and we suggest you consult a pool professional.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:30 am

Pool water pH
The pH is one of the most important factors in pool water balance and it should be tested and corrected at least every week. pH is the measure of how acid/ alkaline the swimming pool water is. A pH of 7.0 is neutral - below 7.0 is acidic, above 7.0 is alkaline. The pH of our eyes is 7.2 . No wonder that the ideal pH for your pool is just that - 7.2 , and should be kept within the range of 7.0-7.6 .
What happens when the pool is too acidic?

(pH is low)

  • If your swimming pool is Marbelite or plaster, the pool water will begin to dissolve the surface, creating a roughness which is ideal for pool algae growth. A similar result occurs in the grouting of tiled swimming pools.

  • Metals corrode - and this includes swimming pool equipment, pipe fittings, pump connections, etc.

  • As the swimming pool walls and metal parts corrode, sulphates are formed. These sulphates are released from the water onto the walls and floor of the swimming pool causing ugly brown and black stains.

  • Chlorine, which is used as a disinfectant in the swimming pool water, is activated and lost to the atmosphere very quickly. The water is not being sanitised, and we are throwing away our money by adding chlorine when the pH is too low.

  • When we swim, our eyes and nose burn. Our swimwear fades and perishes. Our skin gets dry and itchy.


What happens when the pool is too alkaline?

(pH is high)

  • The calcium in the swimming pool water combines with carbonates and forms scale, just like in our kettles. This calcification is seen most at the waterline, where it traps dust and dirt, turning black with time.

  • The swimming pool water starts to become cloudy or murky and it loses its sparkle.

  • The calcium carbonate has a tendency to plate out on the sand in the swimming pool filter, effectively turning it into cement. So your sand filter becomes a cement filter, and loses its ability to trap dirt from the pool water.

  • As the pH rises, the power of the chlorine to act on foreign particles is lost. At a pH of 8.0 the pool can only use 20% of the chlorine you put in. So 80% of it goes to waste and you would need 5 times as much chlorine to provide the disinfection you need.

  • In alkaline swimming pool water, the swimmers suffer too. Our eyes and nose burn and our skin gets dry and itchy.


By neglecting to test and correct the pH of swimming pool water, we not only cause it to become unsightly, but we also cause ourselves physical discomfort. In addition to this, we insist on throwing away our hard-earned money on swimming pool chemicals that cannot possibly be effective in that pool water.
After testing the water, the necessary chemicals must be added to bring the pH to a level of about 7.2 .
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:33 am

Testing the chlorine
When planning to buy a test kit to measure the chlorine levels in your pool, it is important to remember that there a 3 aspects which can be measured:

  1. Free available chlorine (or residual chlorine) - is the amount of chlorine in the pool that can sanitise or disinfect the water and is the important measurement for us.
  2. Combined chlorine - consists of undesirable, bad-smelling, irritating compounds which form when there isn't enough free available chlorine.
  3. Total chlorine - is the total amount of chlorine in the water. It includes both free available and combined chlorine.

We are interested in how much available chlorine there is in the water - chlorine that can act on foreign substances in the water to keep the pool clean and safe for the swimmers.
Too little chlorine results in algal and bacterial growth, waterborne illnesses, cloudy water and insufficient sanitation of the water.
Too much chlorine can result in eye, nose and skin irritations. Remember, too, that the chlorine in the pool is carcinogenic and we should aim to keep its level to the minimum required for complete disinfection.
Test kits which use tablets rather than liquid reagents are preferred. The tablets are easier to use and provide more accurate results. Also make sure that the chlorine measuring tablets are "DPD" as only these can measure the free available chlorine.
Take the water sample from at least 20-30 cm below the surface and at least that far from the wall of the pool. Test the water according to the test kit's instructions.
The desirable level of available chlorine in the pool is 1.0-3.0ppm with 2.0ppm being the recommended ideal. If you are using a Pool Wizard, the ideal free chlorine level is 0.5 ppm (25% of the chlorine required in pools without a Pool Wizard).
Add chlorine according to the test results. As a rough guide, a pool needs about 600 grams of granular chlorine (2-3 cups) for each 50,000 litres of water twice a week during the hot swimming season (150 grams or 1/2-3/4 cup if using a Pool Wizard). Please note that this is only a guide, and actual chlorine requirements can only be determined by regular testing.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:35 am

Total Alkalinity
The total alkalinity (TA) is a measure of how much of the alkaline substances there are in the water. In the swimming pool water, we are concerned with bicarbonate alkalinity, which should be between 80 ppm and 120 ppm.
When the total alkalinity (TA) is within this range, it prevents rapid pH changes and "stabilises" the pH level.
If the TA is too low, Marbelite and plaster walls will become etched, metals corrode, the pool's walls and floor can stain, the water can turn green, eyes burn and we can have pH bounce (pH rapidly going up and down, seemingly at random).
If the TA is too high, the pH is difficult to adjust, the water becomes cloudy, the pool constantly needs acid (according to your test kit) and the chlorine loses its efficiency as a disinfectant.
It is recommended that you test the TA regularly, but in practice it changes very little in a well-maintained pool.
To raise the level of TA, we use sodium bicarbonate; it is the only chemical which will do this without increasing the pH very much. Use the calculator to find out how much sodium bicarbonate you need to raise the TA of your pool. Note that you should only add sodium bicarbonate at the rate of 1 kg per 50,000 litres of water every 4 days. Raising the TA can therefore be quite a time-consuming, slow process.
Lowering the total alkalinity is also a slow process. Acid, either liquid or dry, is added to the deepest part of the pool with the filter off. The acid should only be added a little at a time, diluting it before pouring it into the pool. Wait 3 days between applications. It could take days or even weeks to reduce the TA if it is very high. You should consult a pool professional if you have a high TA, or you can visit the Total Alkalinity forum for help on how to reduce it. The quantities of hydrochloric acid and dry acid you will need can be calculated using our pool calculators.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:37 am

Calcium hardness
Total hardness in the context of pool water refers to the total mineral content of the water. This is made up of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and other elements. These elements are present in the water used to fill the pool, and the levels can increase through the use of regular pool chemicals (e.g. chlorine composed of calcium hypochlorite). We are interested in the calcium hardness levels.
The ideal range for calcium hardness is 250-350 ppm.
If the calcium hardness is too low, the water becomes corrosive and results in the etching of the pool's surfaces. Metals corrode - and this includes pool equipment, pipe fittings and pump connections. As a result, the pool's walls and floor can stain.
Low calcium hardness can easily be increased using calcium chloride. The amount needed can be calculated using the calcium chloride calculator. 


NOTE: divide the required amount of calcium chloride into 3 parts. Add the first part and circulate the water for at least 4 hours. Test the water again and repeat the process until the desired level is reached.

If the calcium hardness is too high, the result will be scale formation on all pool surfaces. The filter and pipes become clogged, reducing water flow and filtration efficiency. The water becomes cloudy and swimmers complain of eye irritations.
Reducing calcium hardness is very difficult. Either replace some or all of the water in the pool, or add chemicals that will keep the calcium in solution and prevent it from depositing out. If the calcium hardness is high, we recommend that you consult a pool professional.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:40 am

Total Dissolved Solids
Total dissolved solids (TDS) is, as its name implies, the measure of the total amount of dissolved material in the water.
The level of TDS in the pool is influenced by many factors; the chemicals we add to adjust the pH, chlorine, water hardness, alkalinity, dust, dirt, human waste, . . . all increase its level.
The maximum acceptable level of TDS for swimming pools is 1,500 ppm. At values above this, we begin to notice stains in the pool. It will also reduce the activity of any chemicals you add, preventing them from doing what they're supposed to. The water may also become cloudy.
Unfortunately, if the TDS level is too high, there is little that can be done to reduce it. The only practical solution is to drain some or all of the water from the pool (depending on how high the TDS is), and replace it with fresh water (with a low TDS). A regular backwashing routine will help to prevent the TDS from rising too much.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:42 am

Stabiliser (conditioner)
Chlorine, which we use as a sanitiser in our pools, is very unstable.The effects of the sun's UV rays and high temperatures reduces chlorine's effectiveness and breaks it down into inactive components.
Stabiliser, or cyanuric acid, is a compound which protects the chlorine from the negative effects of UV and heat. It not only ensures that our pool remains clean and safe for the swimmers throughout the day, but it also reduces the amount of chlorine we need to add in order to maintain these levels of disinfection.
"According to research results, pools without stabiliser lose about 90% of their total chlorine residual on a sunny day in two or three hours. Pools treated with 25 to 50 milligrams per litre of cyanuric acid, however, under the same conditions, lose only 10 to 15 percent of their total chlorine." (White et. al. , 1972)
Ideally, the stabiliser should be maintained at a level of about 50 ppm, the acceptable limits being 40-80 ppm. If you use a stabilised chlorine product, you will need to add very little, if any, stabiliser. To find out how much cyanuric acid your pool requires to raise the level of stabiliser, you can use our stabiliser calculator.
If the stabiliser level is too high, try using a non-stabilised chlorine product until the level falls to the recommended limits.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:43 am

Copper, Iron and others
Copper is one of nature's elements. It is also used in the equipment and plumbing in most swimming pools. Copper, in its free state, may also be present in cheaper algaecides.
Corrosive water (low pH, low TA, low calcium hardness) caused by improper water balance or misuse of chemicals can cause copper to be dissolved into the pool water. The water supply you use for topping up the pool may also contain high levels of copper, iron and other metals.
The maximum level for copper is 1.0ppm, though lower levels are recommended. At high concentrations, the copper deposits out of the water and onto hair, fingernails or pool walls causing green stains. High levels of copper can also cause green water.
Iron in the pool causes the water to turn brown or green. It can also cause staining of the pool walls. Iron has much the same causes as copper (i.e. corrosive water or high levels in the top-up water). The maximum level of iron is 0.3ppm although iron-free water is desirable.
Copper and iron can be "locked" into the water using chemicals (chelating agents). This prevents the metal from dicolouring the water or staining the pool.
Magnesium and manganese in the water increase the hardness and can cause scale. See also calcium hardness.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:45 am

Adjusting pool water pH
Assuming that the total alkalinity level is correct, we adjust the pH according to the results of the pH test. Most better test kits have an acid demand test, which allows you to calculate the amount of acid to add in order to correct the pH. You generally need to know the volume of the pool to calculate the quantity required.
In general, the pH of pool water tends to rise. This is a result of chlorination, swimmer's wastes (sweat, urine, . . .) and nature's tendency to balance the pH of standing water at about 8.5 .
High pH can be reduced with an acid. The most common pool acids are:

  • liquid hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) and

  • dry acid (sodium bisulphate).


Extreme care must be taken when adding acid to the pool, as negligence can result in serious burns. Before adding the acid, be sure there are no swimmers in the water and that the pump is running. You will need a plastic bucket to mix the acid in.
Always add acid to water; never add water to acid! 3/4 fill the bucket with water from the pool. Add the acid to the bucket and pour it slowly around the deep end of the pool. If you are adding a large quantity of acid, do it in stages -DON'T add large amounts of acid to the pool at one time. Allow the pump to circulate the water for at least 4 hours and then test the pH again. A pH reading of 7.0-7.6 is required, with 7.2 being the ideal level.
If you add too much acid to the pool at one time, you risk etching the walls, corroding the pipes and pump fittings and you lower the total alkalinity of the water.
Low pH is increased with an alkali - this is most commonly soda ash (sodium carbonate). The amount of sodium carbonate required to raise the pH can be obtained from our soda ash calculator.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:47 am

Adding chlorine to pool water
Assuming that the total alkalinity is at the right level and the pH is correct, chlorine can be added. The amount of chlorine to add depends on the present chlorine level and the type of chlorine used. Refer to the manufacturers instructions for quantity. If you need to know the volume of water in the pool, you can work it out using our volume calculators.
As discussed previously, chlorine degrades rapidly under the influence of UV light. For this reason chlorine should be added only in the late afternoon or early evening, when it can dissolve and mix thoroughly before the damaging sun's rays can affect it.
The chlorine should be evenly scattered/ poured around the pool or poured slowly in front of the return flow jets to ensure rapid and even distribution.
Chlorine should be kept at a level of 1.0-3.0 ppm to ensure sufficient sanitation. If you are using a Pool Wizard, a level of 0.5 ppm is required. This combination will provide a far superior sanitation to chlorine alone.
If the pool has very high levels of contamination or there is a strong smell of chlorine around the pool, you may need to shock treat the water. This involves adding large quantities of non-stabilised chlorine (or non-chlorine oxidisers) to the pool, which rapidly destroys the offending matter.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 2:48 am

Flocculation in swimming pool water
One of the problems with our easily maintained sand filters is that they are unable to trap dirt or foreign matter below 0.02 mm (20 microns). Cloudy water is probably a result of these minute particles of matter if the total alkalinity, pH,calcium hardness and TDS are all within the recommended limits.
Flocculation (or coagulation) is the process of adding chemicals which bind or stick these tiny particles together, resulting in larger clumps which settle to the bottom of the pool and leave the water clear. These "clumps" can be easily removed by vacuuming the floor of the pool.
Chlorination or chlorine shock treatment may also clear the water, but this is both expensive and upsets the water balance.
Flocculant is relatively inexpensive and can be used frequently in pools that are exposed to high levels of pollutants (both environmental and swimmer waste). Follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, as there is a wide variety of "floc agents" available, each of which has different directions.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 3:04 am

Cleaning the Swimming Pool water
Pollution in pool water comes either from the environment or is carried into the water by the swimmers. Environmental pollution includes dust, leaves, chemical wastes, pollen, spores, bacteria and so on, that are blown into the water by the wind. Swimmers carry other pollutants into the water: sweat, suntan oils, urine, bacteria, viruses, etc.
Every swimming pool has a circulation pump and filter. The filters most common these days are sand filters, and are much easier to maintain than the earlier diatomaceous filters of a few years back. The pool pump ensures that the swimming pool water moves through the filter every day, thus removing unwanted pollutants and disinfected organic materials as quickly as possible.
Other common pool filters include DE (diatomaceous earth) filters, which are able to filter out finer particles of dirt, though they require more maintenance. Cartridge filters are also quite widespread and are quite simple to maintain. Nowadays a filter sand substitute containing zeolite is gaining in popularity. The zeolite (specifically the clinoptilolite mineral) is able to filter particles as finely as DE filters in addition to having a capacity to absorb ammonia and its complexes (reducing combined chlorine and offensive chlorine odours), while not requiring any extra maintenance.
Generally, the swimming pool pump should run for at least 6 - 8 hours each day. There is usually a timer which cycles the pool pump on and off to ensure this constant filtration. The circulation of pool water will remove floating or suspended particles of dirt from the water, but has no effect on the substances which have settled to the bottom of the swimming pool or "stuck" to the walls.
Depending on the environmental conditions and swimmer load, the swimming pool needs regular brushing and vacuuming, generally about once a week in the swimming season for home pools. With the circulation pump turned off, the walls and floor of the pool are swept with a stiff brush. When the "dust" from the brushing settles, it is vacuumed off the floor of the swimming pool. The pool must also be vacuumed after treating with a flocculant. Nowadays, there is a variety of automatic swimming pool cleaners, which suck the dirt off the walls and floor of the swimming pool whenever the pool pump is running. These are really great for pool owners who never seem to have the time for swimming pool chores.
Now that the vacuuming is done, it is time to backwash the filter. Sand filters trap dust and dirt, as the name implies, in a bed of sand. When the filter has accumulated a large amount of dirt, the water cannot pass freely through the sand and the filter loses efficiency as the pressure increases. Backwashing sends water backwards through the filter and flushes the trapped dirt out. After backwashing, you will notice an increase in return pressure to the pool, and if you have a pressure guage, you should notice an increase of at least 0,5 bar.
With the pool pump off, turn the filter setting to "backwash". Remove the leaf basket from the weir, clean and replace it. Turn on the pump and let it run until the water coming out of the waste pipe is clear. This generally needs a few minutes. Turn off the pump and set the filter to rinse; this cleans out the pipes and prevents any dirt from returning to the pool. It also settles the sand in the filter which has been stirred up by the backwashing. Run the pump for about a minute and then turn it off. Set the filter to "closed". Open the leaf trap near the pump, remove the basket and clean out all the leaves, twigs and rubbish it may have collected. Replace the basket, set the filter to "filter" and turn your pump back to its automatic (timer) operating position.
Great! The swimming pool looks clean and the filter has been rejuvenated. Now it's time to test the pool water and adjust the pH and chlorine levels.
If your swimming pool needs topping up, now is the ideal time to put the hose in the pool. It is very healthy for the swimming pool water to be replaced bit by bit, to prevent it becoming stale and creating chemical problems or pool water problems. A routine of 5-minute backwashing followed by a 1-minute rinse every week will ensure that you replace about 5% of the swimming pool water each month. This means a complete changeover of swimming pool water approximately every 2 years.
REMEMBER too, that the useful lifespan of the sand in your filter is 3-5 years. If you neglect to change the sand, your filter will not be able to remove the finer particles of dirt and your swimming pool can never be completely clean. Have the pool filter opened for inspection at least every 2 years to avoid filtration problems.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 3:09 am

Pool water testing - no pool problems
At least once a week, the swimming pool water needs to be tested to ensure certain levels of pool chemicals. This is most conveniently done after backwashing the filter.
A balanced swimming pool really only needs to have the pH and chlorine levels checked and corrected on a regular basis, the other chemical values being measured less frequently.
A good pool test kit is a must - preferably one that uses tablets rather than liquid drops. Expired tablets/ test liquids (reagents) should be thrown out as they very often give inaccurate readings, resulting in us pouring unnecessary (expensive) chemicals into our swimming pools. Always keep the test kit in a cool dry place out of the sun and out of the reach of children.
When testing the pool water, rinse the cells of your test kit thoroughly before filling them with water from at least 20-30 cm below the surface of the swimming pool. When you're finished the tests, never empty the test solution back into the swimming pool.
Weekly pool water testing:
pH
Chlorine
If there are no obvious problems in your swimming pool, the following tests need only be done every 3 months or so but preferably every month. They are either undertaken by a professional swimming pool consultant who comes to your pool, or they can be done at many specialist pool shops if you take them a pool water sample (in a clean glass jar!).
Monthly pool water testing:
Total Alkalinity
Calcium Hardness
Total Dissolved Solids
Stabiliser
If the water in your area is free from any metals and your swimming pool shows none of the symptoms of iron or copper presence, the test for these metals is unnecessary. If, however, you notice staining on the walls and floor of the swimming pool, you should have the levels of these metals checked.
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مُساهمةموضوع: مشاكل الطحالب فى حمامات السباحة والمعالجة القورية لها   الإثنين يونيو 30, 2014 3:20 am

 


Algae problems in pool water


Pool water problem - algae
Algae is the most common pool water problem only because it is the most visibly obvious one.


Algae in itself is not dangerous - in fact it is the main ingredient in many health supplements and tablets.


Algae brings danger in that it converts sunlight into food, releasing wastes that become the feeding grounds for unwanted and harmful bacteria and 
other micro-organisms.
There are well over 20,000 species of algae, only a few of which are encountered in swimming pool water.


Algae is almost constantly entering the pool, and as soon as the sanitizer level drops too low, the algae begins to take hold and multiply. 


It takes as little as a few hours on a warm sunny day for your sparkling pool to develop an algae problem.


The algae "spores" found in the air are from algae that has dried out (at a nearby stream, from a neighbor's pool . . .) and become airborne with the 
breeze.
Types of pool algae
Algae in swimming pools is often referred to by its color:
green algae - by far the most common and relatively easy to treat;
yellow/ mustard algae - troublesome to treat but also relatively susceptible to treatment;
black algae - can be very difficult to get rid of, especially in plastered pools;
pink algae - not an algae at all, but is a fungus called Paecilomyces lilacinus that causes slimy white, pink or grey colonies.
Preventing pool algae
Maintaining proper water balance and minimum sanitizer levels will ensure that any algae spores entering the pool water cannot take hold. Most pools use chlorine, which should be kept at a minimum level of 1.0ppm. Using the Pool Wizard or any similar mineral system may allow you to keep the free chlorine level at 0.5ppm or lower without the risk of developing an algae problem.
Destroying pool algae
Once algae has been allowed to bloom, it is quite tiresome to destroy. The common steps to get rid of an algae problem are:
Shock treat the pool. If you are using chlorine, aim for at least 10ppm free chlorine (10 times the recommended minimum level).
Circulate the water round the clock if possible.
Brush the pool and vacuum.
Add a commercial algaecide prepared for the algae you have (green, mustard or black) according to the instructions.
Repeat brushing and vacuuming daily if possible. Add more chlorine if the level falls below 5ppm.
Clean or backwash your filter regularly.
The Pool Wizard and pool algae problems
The Pool Wizard was developed to destroy algae and bacteria, and prevent their recurrence in swimming pool water. The 24/7 protection the minerals claim to provide may help prevent algae and bacteria from multiplying in pool water even when chlorine levels hit zero for a couple of days. With the Pool Wizard, algae may becomes something you find only in that health supplement you take every morning, and not something you see in your pristine blue pool.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: اسباب مشاكل حمامات السباحة   الجمعة يوليو 25, 2014 2:00 pm

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