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technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
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المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
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6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
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9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
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فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
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صور مختلفة
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صور
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 water impurities in boiler water treatment/الشوائب فى مياه الغلايات

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عدد المساهمات : 3596
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: water impurities in boiler water treatment/الشوائب فى مياه الغلايات   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 03, 2009 6:52 am

١
Water Impurities in Boiler Water Treatment
Natural water contains a variety of impurities, which can drop out of solution
when heated, leaving behind deposits, which interfere with proper boiler
performance, inhibiting heat transfer and water flow. Water is an excellent
solvent, dissolving gases from the air, gases from organics in the soil,
suspended matter from the earth, and minerals, chiefly calcium carbonate,
magnesium carbonate, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, silica (sand),
sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and small quantities of iron, manganese,
fluorides, aluminum, etc.
Waters which contain a large proportion of calcium and magnesium are
considered "hard to wash with", hence the name hard water. The amount of
hardness in natural water can vary from several parts per million to over 500
parts per million. Since calcium and magnesium compounds are relatively
insoluble in water, when heated, they tend to precipitate (fall out) of solution,
causing scale and corrosion. Since deposits insulate the pipes, they prevent
the efficient transfer of heat, causing overheating. If the overheating is severe
enough and long enough, the metal fails. Boiler tube deposits can also cause
plugging or partial obstruction of boiler tubes, also causing overheating.
Corrosion can occur under the deposits, potentially leading to leaks in the
tubes.
Natural waters also contain varying levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide,
which act as oxidizers, causing both weakening and failure of metal and
corrosion byproduct, which add to the boiler deposits. RESAT EGYPT uses
oxygen scavenging chemicals CORROTAN series to eliminate oxygen from
the system and alkalinity boosters, such as Alkalin-RB series, to maintain the
water in the range of 100 ppm to 600 ppm alkalinity. Daily testing by the boiler
attendant allow the amount of chemical to be adjusted as needed.
Condensate system corrosion is caused by carbon dioxide and oxygen carried
into the system by the steam. Condensate corrosion is controlled by
neutralizing amines, which neutralize the corrosive effect of the gases found in
the return condensate piping and filming amines, which form a protective film
on the interior surfaces of the return condensate piping. The
series contains a variety of amine formulas, selected by your
representative to compliment your particular water and its problems.
When possible, it is best to obtain boiler feed water from ground-water, as this
water is more consistent in composition and contains less suspended matter
than surface supplies, which are modified by rainfall and erosion.
A 0.5mm. Deposit of scale on the waterside surface increases fuel
consumption by 9%; while a 1mm. deposit of scale on the waterside
increases fuel consumption by 16%. By measuring the difference between
the stack temperature and the temperature of the water can indicate the
amount of scale that may be present, assuming that the combustion side of
the boiler is operating efficiently (
٢
Water Testing
There are two general methods used to determine the levels of impurities and
the type and amount of treatment necessary to eliminate corrosion, scale and
loss of heat transfer ability. These are titration and colorimetric tests. The
colorimetric is the easiest to perform for plant engineers, so compliance with
routine testing is usually higher with this type of test.
• The colorimetric test is based upon the development of a color in a
sample proportional to the amount of the substance present.
Concentration of substance in the sample is found by comparing its
color with color standards of know concentration. Some comparators
have color standards in sealed glass ampoules (CHEMetrics): others
(Palintest and La MOTE) use standard colored disks.
• To perform a titration test, standard solutions from a burette, drop test
kit, or calibrated container are added to the water sample. When the
endpoint is reached, usually signaled by a color change in the sample,
the burette solution level is noted or number or drops counted, if a drop
test is used. The reading is proportional to the amount of the particular
impurity present.
There are three options to determine water "hardness", including
gravimetric analysis for calcium and magnesium, colorimetric titration
and soap tests, of which the latter two are the most popular.
Conductivity is another method of measuring the total solids found in a water
sample. Pure, distilled water, is a poor conductor of electricity, therefore the
less dissolved solids in the water, the lower will be the conductivity. The
instrument used for this measurement is a conductivity meter and the results
are measured are micromhos (μ.mhos).
When taking a sample for water testing, please observe the following:
• Use a clean, rubber-stoppered, resistant glass bottle or a new plastic
bottle
• Either thoroughly wash and rinse used bottles or use new bottles for
samples
• Before taking samples through metal lines and valves, allow water to run
for several minutes to wash out the system. This is necessary to make
certain the sample taken is representative and not contaminated with a
disproportionate amount of any one impurity.
• Rinse the container thoroughly with the water that is to be analyzed
before taking a sample...
How Does A Boiler Work?
A boiler is water containing vessel which transfers heat from a fuel source (oil,
gas, coal) into steam which is piped to a point where it can be used to run
production equipment, to sterilize, provide heat, to steam-clean, etc.
The energy given up by the steam is sufficient to convert it back into the form
of water. When 100% of the steam produced is returned to be reused, the
system is called a closed system. Examples of closed systems are closed
steam heating, hot water heating, and "one-pipe" systems.
Since some processes can contaminate the steam, so it is not always
desirable to feed the condensate back into the boiler. A system that does not
return the condensate is called an open system.
The two main types of boilers are:
• Fire tube - the fire or hot gases are directed through the inside of tubes
within the boiler shell, which are surrounded by water. The tubes are
arranged in banks so that the gases can be passed through the boiler up
to 4 times before passing out the stack. This system exposes the
maximum heat transfer surface to the water. Fire tube boilers are also
known as shell boilers and can produce up to approximately 750 hp or
57 Ton of steam per hour. 80% of boilers in use are of this configuration.
• A subtype of this boiler is the packaged boiler, shipped complete with
fuel burning equipment, mechanical draft equipment, automatic controls
and accessories and is designed to function automatically with a very
minimum of attention. It is particularly important to prevent scale
formation in this type of boiler.
• Water tube - the fire or hot gases are directed to and around the
outside of tubes containing water, arranged in a vertical position. Water
tube boilers are usually rectangular in shape and have two or more
drums. The separation of steam and water takes place in the top drum,
while the bottom drum serves as a collection point for sludge. This
system is usually used when more than 750 hp or 57 Tons of steam per
hour, are needed.
• There are other designs with special configurations, adapting them to
particular applications.
٤
Boiler Ratings and Boiler Load
• The oldest method of rating boilers, still used to rate small boilers, is by
horsepower (hp). One horsepower is defined as the ability to evaporate
34.5 lbs of water into steam at 212 deg. F and above.
• Large boiler capacity is generally given in lbs of steam evaporated per
hour, under specified steam conditions. Maximum continuous rating is
the hourly evaporation that can be maintained for 24 hours.
• Another measure is the BTU (British thermal unit). 33,472 BTU equals 1
hp
To convert BTU into hp, divide the BTU rating by 33,472
Example: 8,368,000 BTU ÷ 33,472 = 250 hp
• Boiler load - The horsepower, lbs of steam per hour, or BTU is the
rating indicating the maximum capacity of a boiler. When a boiler
operates at its maximum rated capacity, it is referred to as maximum
load. If the load varies from hour to hour, it operates at a varying load.
Load and load variations can influence the amount of chemicals required
for treatment and the treatment controls required.
Treatment Options
• If you do not treat the water used by your boiler, boiler shutdowns for
expensive cleaning will be required to remove the buildup of scale. If the
corrosion is sufficient, you may also need to replace your pipes.
• Boiler water carryover, the contamination of the steam with boiler water
solids, can occur if conditions of excessively high suspended and
dissolved solids are present in the water. If the steam is used to sterilize,
as in a hospital or food process plant, the solids can cause critical
problems by depositing out at the point where the steam is used. In
many industrial plants, steam is used directly on the product produced,
so that deposits carryover can cause the shutdown of the plant, until the
problem can be remedied. Maintaining the cycles of concentration at a
low level and using antifoam chemicals can prevent this problem.
To convert horsepower (hp) into lbs of steam: Multiply hp x 34.5
Example: 100 hp x 34.5 = 3450 lbs of steam per hour
To convert lbs of steam to hp: Divide steam per hour by 34.5
Example: 8625 lbs of steam ÷ 34.5 = 250 hp boiler
Note: 1 lbs = 0.453 Kg.t.
• You can combine chemical treatment with the removal of solids known
as blow-down. Softening agent chemicals, which react with calcium and
magnesium to produce a non-adherent, very mobile and readily
dispersed sludge, are added to the water to maintain the water at "0"
hardness. The non-adherent sludge is removed by either manually
wasting boiler water to the drain (bottom blow-down) and/or surface or
skimmer blow-down. The water wasted is replaced with fresh water,
which further dilutes the amount of solids. The combination of this
process of dilution and adding chemicals keeps the system in control.
• Regulating blow-down. The two tests used to regulate the frequency and
volume of blow-down is chloride level and specific conductance. These
tests should be run daily by the boiler attendant, who regulates blowdown
to keep the solids within limits prescribed by your
service representative. Since chloride does not react with the chemicals
in the water treatment, the cycles of concentration can be calculated
by testing this substance. Example: If the makeup chlorides are 20 ppm
and boiler water chlorides are 100 ppm, the boiler is at 5 cycles of
concentration. If makeup chlorides are at 30 ppm and the boiler water is
at 120 ppm, the boiler is at 4 cycles of concentration.
• The second test used for regulating blow down is specific
conductance. A conductivity meter is used to measure the conductivity
of the "make up" water as compared to the conductivity of the boiler
water. The ratio of the two figures is the "cycles of concentration".
Example: If the makeup water conductivity is 300 μmhos and boiler
water conductivity is 2100 μmhos, 2100 ÷ 300 equals 7 cycles of
concentration.
• Corrosion control is maintained by monitoring pH and/or alkalinity. Test
strips and meters are available to measure pH and test kits are available
from La Motte, Palintest and CHEMetrics.
Does the Boiler Need Treatment when it is Out-of-Service?
Unless idle boilers are stored properly, they can corrode badly. Wet lay up of a
boiler is possible as long as the ambient temperature remains above freezing.
Before wet storage, the boiler should be inspected, cleaned if necessary and
refilled to the normal water level with de aerated feed water. Add the correct
dosage of treatment and apply heat for one hour.
If the super heater is drainable or the boiler does not have a super heater,
allow the boiler to cool slightly after firing. Then, before a vacuum has a
chance to form, completely fill the unit with de aerated feed water. After filling
the boiler completely, connect a surge tank, such as a 250 Kgs.
drum.
containing a solution, or a nitrogen tank at 0.4 bar pressure, to
the steam drum vent. This supply will compensate for volumetric changes due
to temperature variations. Leave the drain between the non-return and main
steam stop valves open wide. Tightly close all other drains and vents.
Test the boiler water once a week from the shut-down boiler, and add extra
treatment, as necessary, to maintain minimum levels. When chemicals are
added, use an external pump to circulate the boiler water or reduce the water
level to the normal operating level and steam the boiler for a short time. Then
follow the above directions to lay it up again. If the super heater cannot be
drained, fill it with de aerated water and treat it in the same proportion as the
boiler.
For dry lay up, the boiler should be drained, cleaned and dried out. Place an
absorbent material, such as hydrated lime or silica gel in trays inside the boiler
and seal it to prevent air from seeping into the boiler. Periodic replacement of
the drying agent may be required during a login storage period.
What is the Plant Control Test Log Sheet?
The plant control test log is the book of forms in which to record the daily tests
that are performed to monitor the system and adjust its treatment.
should be maintained to keep your system in proper control and will then
examine these logs when he makes his regular service visit.
If boiler load varies, slight adjustments may be made by the boiler attendant to
keep the chemical treatment within the limits set by the RESAT EGYPT
representative. A sample RESAT EGYPT plant control log sheet is on-line.
PLANT CONTROL TEST LOG SHEET
Boilers Water Systems
Company: ……………………………… Plant Type: ……………………………….
Plant Location: ……………………….. Date: ………………………………………
Parameters Row
Water
Pretreatment
Water
Feed Boiler
Tank
Boiler
No 1
Boiler
No 2
pH
TDS (ppm)
Total Hardness (ppm)
P1 Alkalinity (ppm)
P2 Alkalinity (ppm)
Total Alkalinity (ppm)
Tannin / sulfite (ppm)
Chlorides (ppm)
Concentration Factor
Corrosion Rate
Treatment in Use:
………………………..
………………………..
………………………..
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
Fuel Burned/Day
Steam Rate/Day
Makeup Rate/Day
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water impurities in boiler water treatment/الشوائب فى مياه الغلايات
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