مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثقائمة الاعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
تنظيف وتطهير وغسيل واعادة تاهيل الخزانات


معمل تكنولاب البهاء جروب
 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
سابقة خبرتنا فى اختيار خطوط الانتاج لعملاؤنا
 
1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 تصميم وتصنيع وتوريد وتركيب محطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى لمصانع انتاج الزيتون المخلل وزيت الزيتون بالطريقة الكيميائية والبيولوجية

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: تصميم وتصنيع وتوريد وتركيب محطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى لمصانع انتاج الزيتون المخلل وزيت الزيتون بالطريقة الكيميائية والبيولوجية   الجمعة أكتوبر 17, 2014 1:39 pm

INTRODUCTION


The olive oil sector is an enormous economic, cultural and environmental asset in some countries, such Spain, Italy or Greece. As a result, improving the treatment of the waste obtained after olive oil production and attempting to revalue it is crucial for improving the competitiveness and profitability of the sector. Correct purification is very important once the olive oil has been obtained, as in Spain more than one million cubic meters of wastewater is generated from oil mills every year.


 


The production process usually follows this sequence:


Milling
Churning
Horizontal centrifugation
Vertical centrifugation
Storage and packaging


Once the fruit has been gathered and transported, the production process begins in the oil mill.


Currently, there are two production systems:


the traditional or three-stage system, that produces three types of product in addition to the oil: olive juice, pomace and wastewater.


And the two-stage system, that aside from the oil generates wastewater and olive paste (mixture of pomace and juice). This new two-stage system is more efficient, generates less waste and consumes less water, and therefore generates less wastewater.


The two-stage system generates two types of waste: wastewater and olive paste.


The wastewater from the cleaning and vertical centrifugation processes, and from the cleaning of the tanks, hoppers and other elements. This waste does not comply with the regulations for discharge into public waterways, nor can it be used for irrigation due to its high pollution loads. Traditionally this waste has been stored in pools without treatment, which causes serious problems for the sector, since the surface are occupied must increase, generating bad odors, overflowing, sanctions, stalling activity, plagues of insects, etc.


The wastewater generated by the activity of the oil mills, commonly known as “alpechín” or juice, contains a wide variety of waste such as: dust, earth, oil and greases, sugars, nitrogenated substances, organic acid, polyalcohols, polyphenols, etc. Polyphenols are a large problem as they inhibit the bacterial activity in the soil.


For this reason, this water has to be treated to be able to be reused for irrigation. The treatment to eliminate this pollutant consists of a physical-chemical purification due to its inhibiting action on microbiological processes.


This wastewater, or alpechín, before being treated, is characterized by its dark color and strong odor. It has a high level of organic pollution with a COD/BOD5 ratio between 2.5 and 5, and a high content of polyphenols and solid material.


The pH is slightly acid, easily fermented, with a high electrical conductivity and it contains emulsifying fats.


There are a variety of techniques for treating wastewater from oil mills so that it meets the legal standards: Physical-chemical methods (coagulation-flocculation, oxidation and electrochemical processes), biological treatment (activated sludge, anaerobic treatment, processes based on membrane biological reactors).


Each method has its advantages and disadvantages in terms of costs and efficacy, so it is common to combine several technological solutions.


As we have commented previously, once this wastewater has already been treated it may be reused for irrigation or other uses such as cooling for boilers and topping up aquifers.


In fact this is a practice recommended by the public administrations and international organisms. Nevertheless, this treated water must be subjected to monitoring of its use and quality in order for it to be used as a hydric resource that is safe for health and the environment.


The treatment of olive paste is also extremely important, as its uncontrolled discharge causes problems with the water color and entails a threat to aquatic biodiversity, damage to soils, phytotoxicity and odors.


Moreover the pomace producers have adapted to the reception of this product from which they can extract pomace oil using a physical or chemical process. After obtaining the pomace, by-products can be obtained from the olive paste.


After an energy cogeneration or composting process for the production of biomass, the production of PHB for the manufacture of bioplastics, the production of enzymes and pectins, production of dyes and antioxidants, the production of polysaccharides of commercial interest for the food and cosmetics industry and, also, as agricultural fertilizers.


Therefore, olive paste is a highly pollutant product, but may be used as fuel on one hand (once the residual oil has been extracted) or to manufacture compost on the other.


This latter option is ideal for oil mills that are not near any pomace treatment plants. Thus it is used as a resource which in principle would be waste.


When the olive paste is mixed with olive leaves and manure, a compost of excellent quality is obtained.


For organic matter to be converted into compost aerobic fermentation must take place.


The quality of the product will depend on the following parameters:


carbon and nitrogen ratio (from 25/1 to 45/1), the moisture content of the initial material (from 30% to 80%), the pH (there is no cause for concern if the C/N ratio is suitable), the oxygenation and the temperature.
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تصميم وتصنيع وتوريد وتركيب محطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى لمصانع انتاج الزيتون المخلل وزيت الزيتون بالطريقة الكيميائية والبيولوجية   الجمعة أكتوبر 17, 2014 1:41 pm

[img][/img]
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تصميم وتصنيع وتوريد وتركيب محطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى لمصانع انتاج الزيتون المخلل وزيت الزيتون بالطريقة الكيميائية والبيولوجية   الجمعة أكتوبر 17, 2014 1:49 pm

Problems Arising from OMWW Synthesis


As far as its chemical synthesis is concerned, OMWW basic characteristics that
prove its ‘‘strong’’ nature as industrial waste are:


. Strong offensive smell.


. Extremely high degree of organic pollution (COD values up to 220 g=L) and a COD=BOD5 ratio between 2.5 and 5 (hardly degradable).


. pH between 3 and 5.9.


. High content of polyphenols (up to 80 g=L) which are not easily biodegradable and toxic to most microorganisms.


. High content of solid matter (total solids up to 20 g=L).


In terms of pollution effect, 1m3 of OMWW is equivalent to 100---200m3 of domestic sewage. 




Its uncontrolled disposal in water reservoirs leads to severe problems for the whole ecosystem and especially for the natural water bodies (ground water reservoirs, surface aquatic reservoirs, seashores, and sea). 




The most visible effect is discoloration, a result of oxidation and subsequent polymerization of tannins. 




OMWW also has a considerable content of reduced sugars, high phosphorus content, and phenolic load that has a toxic action to some organisms.


Some microorganisms that metabolize sugars develop more rapidly at the expense of other living organisms. 




The high phosphorus content accelerates the growth of algae resulting in eutrophication. Some aquatic organisms (i.e., the river fish Gambusia affinis and some crustaceans) become severely intoxicated even at exposures corresponding to 1 liter of unprocessed OMWW into 100,000 liter of circulating water (Fiorentino et al., 2004).




OMWW dispersion on the ground and its subsequent metabolization (by microorganisms, insects, earthworms, etc.) to humic extracts or acids also could lead to soil enrichment with nutrients (i.e., organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and a low-cost source of water. 




However, OMWW high concentration of potassium affects the cation exchange capacity of the soil, leading to change of environmental conditions for soil microorganisms and consequently to changes
in the fertility of the soil. Soil porosity also could be affected. 




Other possible negative effects include the immobilization of available nitrogen and decreased available magnesium, perhaps because of the antagonistic effect on potassium
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تصميم وتصنيع وتوريد وتركيب محطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى لمصانع انتاج الزيتون المخلل وزيت الزيتون بالطريقة الكيميائية والبيولوجية   الجمعة أكتوبر 17, 2014 1:56 pm

Other Problematic Characteristics of OMWW


The problems mentioned above make the technological design of an OMWW
treatment plant difficult. 


Factors that make the economic design of such a plant difficult is the intense and seasonal production of the waste (maximum 4 months each winter), the great variability both of synthesis and quantity, the high regional scattering of olive mills, and the small size of the majority of them in the olive oilproducing regions.




Because of its highly variable input and seasonal production, storage facilities
for the excess quantities of waste produced during winter months should be considered during design of a treatment plant. Similar design problems would arise in holiday resorts, where the population also can increase by an order of magnitude.




Olive mills are usually small-scale enterprises that cannot afford the costs of
a proper wastewater treatment unless the treatment is a very simple and cheap
procedure. 


Most treatment technologies, however, require high investment costs and a high level of technological know-how. 




Thus the design of centralized treatment plants is considered more suitable to treat OMWW produced by several mills.


This creates a burden to operational costs, as high transportation costs due to high geographic scattering must be taken into account. In some cases, local conditions136 E. Tsagaraki et al.






may call for separate treatment plants. Finally, serious nuisance due to the unpleasant odors and insects from OMWW may cause a serious difficulty at finding a suitable location of a treatment plant. All these factors introduce economic, technical, and organizational constraints that vary greatly from place to place, making the adoption of an environmentally compatible approach on a wide scale very difficult


Finally, no land disposal of OMWW should be done without taking under consideration its severe phytotoxic and antimicrobial properties that may damage the existing crops (Cox et al., 1997; Paredes et al., 1999; Sierra et al., 2001).




The phytotoxic and antimicrobial properties of OMWW have been mainly
attributed to its phenolic content and some organic acids, such as acetic and formic acid, that are accumulated as microbial metabolites during storage. 




Its direct application on plants inhibits the germination of different seeds and early plant growth of different vegetable species and may cause leaf and fruit abscission as well. 




Different types of crops show different reactions to OMWW spreading and some of them may tolerate a certain amount of OMWWduring early growing stages (Rinaldi et al., 2003).




As far as its antimicrobial activity is concerned, catechol, 4-methyl-catechol,
and hydroxytyrosol are its most active compounds against a number of bacteria
and fungi. 


Several authors have reported OMWW activity against soil gram(‏)spore bacteria like Bacillus megaterium ATCC 33085, Geotrichum, Rhizopus, Rhizoctonia, Bactrocera oleae, and Pseudomonas syringe (Oikonomou et al., 1994) .






These biotoxic properties of phenols in OMWW constitute a significant inhibitor
of the biological processes that take place in common wastewater treatment plants. 




Such plants do not present the desired performance with treatment of OMWW. 




Thus, the treatment of straight OMWW together with domestic sewage is not economically feasible, because of serious overload of the sewage treatment plant. 


So, research is oriented toward more complex treatment methods that usually
demand higher capital or operational costs.
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تصميم وتصنيع وتوريد وتركيب محطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى لمصانع انتاج الزيتون المخلل وزيت الزيتون بالطريقة الكيميائية والبيولوجية   الجمعة أكتوبر 17, 2014 2:14 pm

SUGGESTED OMWW TREATMENT PROCESSES


As can be understood from its synthesis, OMWW possesses a double nature. 


It is a strong pollutant and at the same time a possible source of valuable components, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, inorganic trace elements, etc., that could be isolated (removed) and economically exploited.




Research is oriented toward flexible and efficient treatment solutions that could
ensure the detoxification of the waste compensating high capital and operating costs with the possibility of recovering and recycling some valuable components.


According to these, the numerous treatment processes that have been proposed so far could be classified in the following categories:


. Detoxification processes.
. Processes that aim at the production of various products.
. Integrated processes aiming at energy recovery.
. Combined processes.


. Detoxification Processes


These are processes that aim at ‘‘cleaning’’ the waste so as to allow its safe, subsequent disposal at water or soil reservoirs. 


The most important are biological and physicochemical processes.


. Biological Processes


Biological processes use microorganisms to break down the chemicals present in
OMWW. 


They are divided into aerobic and anaerobic processes according to the
type of the microflora used.


Aerobic processes can operate efficiently only if the concentration of the feed
is relatively low; i.e., of the order of 1 g COD=liter. 


Higher concentrations can be tolerated only if the plant operates at a long hydraulic retention time or=and with high recycle ratio; both possibilities are uneconomical for a treatment plant.


Also, the aerobic treatment of concentrated wastewaters yields huge volumes of excess secondary sludge that has to be removed from the system. 




At last, it is very difficult using aerobic processes to reach the required removal efficiency of pollutants such as polyphenols and lipids. For all the above reasons, aerobic processes are unsuitable for direct and efficient treatment of OMWW. 






They can be used as pretreatment or posttreatment steps to increase the efficiency of the main treatment process used.


Anaerobic digestion consists of a series of microbiological processes that
convert organic compounds into methane and carbon dioxide. 


Although a pretreatment or posttreatment step is also needed, anaerobic treatment is considered most suitable for OMWW detoxification. 




The most important reasons for this choice are the feasibility to treat wastewaters with high organic load, such as OMWW, the low energy requirements, the production of methane that may be exploited after suitable treatment, the production of significantly less waste sludge (than aerobic processes), and the ability to restart easily after several months of shut down (Niaounakis and Halvadakis, 2004; Rozzi and Malpei, 1996).






.a. Anaerobic Processes. 


Anaerobic processes are driven mostly by bacteria and have three major steps:


In the first stage, anaerobic bacteria hydrolyze complex organic compounds, such as polysaccharides and polyphenols to their monomers (simple sugars and phenols, respectively). 




These molecules are converted into organic acids such as acetic, lactic, and formic acids and alcohol by acetogenic bacteria during the second stage of the process. 




In the last stage, methanogenic bacteria, which are characterized by their sensitivity to pH and temperature changes, convert the organic acids into biogas (a mixture of 60–80% methane and other gases, mainly carbon dioxide) (Sabbah et al., 2004).






Anaerobic processes are affected by temperature, retention time, pH, H2 partial
pressure, the chemical composition of the wastewater, and the quantity of toxic
substances present. 


The process usually takes place under thermophilic or mesophilic conditions. 




Retention time varies between 10 and 35 days and pH must be controlled, because acetogenic bacteria tend to lower it and methanogenic
bacteria are sensitive to pH variations.


Several technologies have been tested, including upstream anaerobic sludge
blanket reactor (UASB), contact reactors, anaerobic filters (upstream and downstream), anaerobic baffled reactors (ABR), and two-stage systems that separate acidogenesis and methanogenesis processes (Azbar et al., 2004; Borja and Gonzalez, 1994; Dalis et al., 1996; Rozzi and Malpei, 1996; Zouari, 1998; Zouari and Ellouz, 1996).






UASB-type reactors and anaerobic filters are suitable for high volumetric
pollution loads (5---15 kg COD=m3 day). COD removals of 80% and 60–65%,
respectively, have been reported but in both cases a high dilution ratio is required(1=8 and 1=5) that raises operational costs. 




Anaerobic filters require very little process control and 75% reduction of phenols has been reported (Dalis et al., 1996).


Compared to contact reactors, greater production of methane and elimination of
mechanical mixing, settling, and return of the sludge has been reported (Borja and Gonzalez, 1994). Contact reactors can operate at higher feed concentrations (up to60 g COD=liter) with COD removal efficiencies greater than 80% but only at low loading rates (<5 kgCOD=m3 day) (Rozzi and Malpei, 1996).




A general problem encountered with anaerobic digestion of OMWW is that
both the addition of alkali substances to neutralize pH and of substances that are
sources of nitrogen such as urea or ammonia are necessary. 


The anaerobic microflora also shows limited efficiency in the removal of aromatics, particularly condensed tannins. 




Finally, scaling up these processes proves to be extremely difficult.


Growth rates of anaerobic microorganisms are appreciably lower than those of
aerobic ones and their metabolic degradation pathways require several different
microbial populations in series which make process control and stability very
delicate (Mechichi and Sayadi, 2004).


All these constraints make the use of pretreatment or posttreatment of anaerobic digestion necessary. 




Pretreatment methods proposed so far include dilution of the waste, gravity settling, sand filtration, centrifugation, adsorption, membrane processes, physicochemical treatments (Ca(OH)2, NaOH, Na2CO3, Fenton’s reagent, etc.), and aerobic degradation (Sabbah et al., 2004; Zouari, 1998).




As mentioned before, strong dilution of the waste is necessary in most of the types of anaerobic digesters. 




Some researchers have proposed that if OMWW is mixed with another organic effluent, definitely a more economic dilution media than water, it will also become enriched in its limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and neutralized without the addition of chemicals. 




At locations where the polluting load due to olive industry is comparable or lower than domestic sewage load, OMWW can be treated in conventional domestic sewage digesters if mixed with this effluent. 




Rozzi and Malpei (1996) and Marques (2001) studied the combined treatment of OMWW with piggery effluent, where no chemical correction was needed and 70–80% COD removal was achieved, but decolorization of the waste was not sufficient. 




The produced effluent could be used as irrigation water.




b. Aerobic Processes. 


The combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatment is extensively studied, as there are aerobic consortia that grow on undiluted or diluted OMWW and are capable of metabolizing and removing its aromatic compounds. 




Fungi of this kind have ligninolytic enzymes and can degrade phenolic substances of OMWW that have structural relationships with lignin. However,
the majority of phenolic compounds removed are simple monomers, whereas
polymerized molecules such as tannins degrade more difficultly. 






This happens because these compounds adsorb strongly to mycelia and extracellular enzymes so that their biodegradation is not possible.


In all cases, a certain pretreatment is necessary (dilution, thermal treatment,
etc.) and the resulting effluent always needs additional treatment before it could be safely disposed off. So, aerobic processes alone are not effective enough for the
detoxification of OMWW.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تصميم وتصنيع وتوريد وتركيب محطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى لمصانع انتاج الزيتون المخلل وزيت الزيتون بالطريقة الكيميائية والبيولوجية   الجمعة أكتوبر 17, 2014 2:20 pm

Physicochemical Processes


.a. Neutralization, Precipitation=Flocculation. 


These processes involve the use of additional chemicals in order to destabilize the suspended and colloidal matter of OMWW and form an insoluble solid that can be removed easily from the waste. 




Oil, suspended solids, COD, and BOD are decreased in this way.




Destabilization of these colloids can be achieved either by reducing or increasing
pH (neutralization) or by the addition of a precipitate-inducing agent (precipitation= flocculation).


Reduction of pH to the point of zero charge (pH¼2–4) has attracted little
attention so far, although apart from colloids destabilization, it also is expected to contribute to the acid hydrolysis of oils to fatty acids which can be easily separated from effluents. 






On the contrary, the use of lime (CaO) to increase pH at about 11 has been the subject of several studies (Mitrakas et al., 1996).


By treating OMWW with lime, oil, and COD reduction, decolorization, and
important reduction in odor emissions are achieved. 


The liquid obtained after treatment contains no phytotoxic substances and it can be treated further more easily. 






The major disadvantage of this process is that large quantities of sludge with
high pollution load are produced leading to serious disposal problems.




The most important inorganic flocculents that have been used for OMWW
treatment are ferric and ferrous chloride, ferric sulfate, and aluminium sulfate. 


All these reagents should not be used if the precipitated material is to be used as
animal feed (Niaounakis and Halvadakis, 2004).


The processes described above, although simple and cheap, are more suitable
as pre-treatment methods because the treated liquid still has a high polluting load.


Considerations also arise for the disposal of the precipitated material produced.




.b. Oxidation processes. 


Several oxidizing agents have been tested for OMWW treatment like hydrogen peroxide, ozone, chlorine, chlorinated derivatives (i.e., chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochloride, etc.), or a combination of them.




Ozone and hydrogen peroxide systems are preferred because of their high oxidizing potential and the possibility of operating under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperatures without problematic decomposition products of the oxidizing agent (Niaounakis and Halvadakis, 2004).






In an attempt to increase oxidation rates, advanced oxidation processes have
evolved (AOPs) where the combinations of oxidants as well as the combination of
oxidants with ultraviolet radiation are used. 


They are characterized by the production of the highly oxidative HO_ radical at ambient temperature via a number of


photochemical or non-photochemical pathways. 


This powerful radical is able to completely transform organic compounds to CO2.


The principal AOPs used for OMWW treatment are Fenton’s reagent reaction
(H2O2 plus a ferrous salt) (Gernjak et al., 2004; Rivas et al., 2001),O3 plusUVradiation(Javier-Benitez et al., 1997), H2O2 plus UV radiation, H2O2=O3 ‏ UV radiation and photocatalysis, where solar energy also may be used (Gernjak et al., 2004).


Most of the classic oxidation processes lack effectiveness due to either the high
cost of antioxidants or the low interval of COD for which the system is suitable.


AOPs manage a great COD reduction but their operating costs are considerably
high. 


It could be said that chemical oxidation emerges as a suitable alternative,
when biological degradation is not applicable.
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Thermal Processes


Numerous methods and variations are included in this category and what they have in common is that the concentration of OMWW is achieved either by a manmade heat source or by a natural source of thermal energy (air, sun). 




The most important thermal processes are evaporation, distillation, lagooning (natural evaporation), combustion, and pyrolysis.




Several distillation and evaporation processes such as vacuum, multiple effect,
and flash evaporation already used in desalination and food industry have been
tested on OMWW. 




Although these processes are claimed to reduce significantly the volume of the waste (reduction by 70–75%) great differences exist in bibliography concerning their effectiveness, because it depends on many factors such as extraction process, olive ripening, and especially storage time of the waste (Niaounakis
and Halvadakis, 2004).




The main drawback of these processes is related to the posttreatment and
disposal of the produced emissions: 


The distillate=condensate contains, apart from water, an appreciable fraction of volatile compounds such as alcohols and volatile acids. 




These compounds make the condensate too acidic (pH 4–4.5) and with high BOD (>4 g=liter) and COD (>3 g=liter) values making necessary an additional treatment prior to discharge or reuse. 




The concentrated paste has a high concentration of the polluting organic load, so its combustion induces air pollution (Niaounakis and Halvadakis, 2004; Rozzi and Malpei, 1996). 






All these processes also have extremely high costs, due to the great energy consumption necessary and the equipment costs that has to be made of materials resistant to corrosion.




Natural evaporation of OMWW in ambient air with the use of solar energy in
evaporation ponds or storage lakes (lagoons) has much lower energy costs and it is a simple procedure. It is one of the first processes used and removal of COD
ranging from 20–30% to 75–80% has been reported. 




The waste has a residence time of 7–8 months in the lagoons and large land surface areas are required (about 1m3 for each2:5m3 of OMWW). 




Several ecological concerns arise including the possibility of groundwater contamination if the bottom of the lagoon is not properly lined against infiltration and leakage and the emissions of methane in the atmosphere due to
the anaerobic fermentation of the waste that occurs in the lagoons. 






These lagoons should be located far enough from residences to avoid the insect and odor nuisances (Azbar et al., 2004; Rozzi and Malpei, 1996).




Combustion and pyrolysis are radical and destructive techniques that eliminate
any possibility of further use of OMWW. 


Both are very expensive methods with high energy requirements, pretreatment of the waste, and posttreatment of the gaseous emissions necessary and expensive equipment needed. 






For these reasons, they are more suitable for strong wastewaters, concentrated solutions of OMWW, or for olive husk.




In an attempt to minimize the energy costs of thermal processes, several
researchers have proposed the combined thermal treatment of OMWW and olive husk. 




In these processes the required heat for the evaporation of OMWW is produced by the combustion of OMWW concentrated evaporation residue or olive husk or a mixture of these wastes. 






A critical parameter affecting the feasibility of this disposal approach is the degree of mixing of olive husk and OMWW. 




As such disposal systems are characterized by a rather high technological level
requiring remarkable capital investments and qualified personnel, they are more suitable for centralized treatment plants that serve a large number of mills and gain benefits from the economy of the scale (Caputo et al., 2003; Vitolo et al., 1999).
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Membrane Processes


Membrane processes also are tested for use in treatment of OMWW because they are effective for separation of oil-water mixtures without adding solvents.


Ultrafiltration


is the widely considered membrane process for this purpose, while microfiltration and reverse osmosis also have been tested. 




Two different phases are obtained: 




the retentate (concentrate) and permeate. 


Colloidal particles, lipids, and various macromolecules (molecular weights of the order of 10,000 to 100,000 Da) can be prevented from passing through the membrane to the permeate.




With ultrafiltration, only a small amount of retentate (waste) is produced (permeate is 90–95% of the volume of the feed) and very high removal of lipids
is achieved. 




Also, by choosing the appropriate pore size of the membrane used, the composition of the permeate can be controlled. 




A separation of fats that are rejected by the membrane from salts, sugars, and phenolic substances that pass to the permeate can be achieved, enabling the economic exploitation of these substances.




The capital costs of this operation are extremely high and it is a complicated
procedure that needs qualified personnel. 


The main problem is that severe fouling of the membrane occurs very easily, strongly reducing the membrane efficiency due to gelling substances contained in OMWW. 






The removal of these substances in a number of pre-treatment steps is therefore absolutely necessary. 




Also, only a limited concentration factor is achieved and dissolved components such as those determined by the parameter COD are only insufficiently removed and both retentate and




permeate still have high COD concentrations and have to be further processed prior to disposal.


For all the reasons stated above, membrane processes are not suitable for the
treatment of strong OMWW such as from traditional press systems because of their limited efficiency and their high costs, which make their use just for detoxification purposes economically unprofitable. 






They can be used as pretreatment steps in processes that aim at the recovery of valuable, expensive components such as polyphenols and flavoring agents from OMWW. Passing through the membrane, the waste becomes concentrated in these substances making their subsequent extraction easier and more economical while the high costs of the membranes are compensated by the high added value of the product. 






The retentate that has a poor polyphenolic and a high oil content can be used as fertilizer or animal feed after appropriate treatment.
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