مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثقائمة الاعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
تنظيف وتطهير وغسيل واعادة تاهيل الخزانات


معمل تكنولاب البهاء جروب
 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
سابقة خبرتنا فى اختيار خطوط الانتاج لعملاؤنا
 
1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 معالجة مياه حمامات السباحة (انواع الكلور المستخدم /الجرعات اليومية /الجرعات الطارئة)

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: معالجة مياه حمامات السباحة (انواع الكلور المستخدم /الجرعات اليومية /الجرعات الطارئة)   السبت يونيو 06, 2015 3:58 am

Swimming pool chemistry



A swimming pool system lacks the three purifiers that protect water quality in natural bodies of water:




1. Aeration, the addition of oxygen to the water from the continuous flow of water through lakes, streams and rivers.




2. Dilution of sediment from continuous water flow.




3. Prevention of contaminant build-up by water flow, movement and dilution, and biodegradation by aquatic organisms.




As a swimming pool lacks these purifiers, it is subject to rapid stagnation.



Also, it is usually contaminated with bacteria, algae, dust and dirt, and organic materials from swimmers wastes, sweat, urine and even faeces.


A swimming pool must be disinfected as part of a total system to remove bacteria, algae and organic contaminants leaving water with acceptable clarity and colour.



Volume of a swimming pool length × width × depth. If length 25 m, width 10 m, depth 1 m to 2 m (average 1.5 m),




then volume = 25 × 10 × 1.5 = 375 cubic metres (375 000 litres).



 Chlorine and water



When chlorine is added to water, a mixture of hypochlorous acid, HOCl, the active sanitizing species, and hydrochloric acid, HCl, forms within seconds at room temperature.




Cl2 (aq) + 2H2O <=> HOCl + Cl- + H3O+




chlorine + water <=> hypochlorous acid + chloride ion + hydronium ion




In dilute solution and pH > 4, the equilibrium displaces to the right, and little Cl2 exists in solution. 



The chlorine added to swimming pool water does not produce a concentrated solution of a strength to yield such a low pH.


However, the oxidizing property of the added chlorine is in the HOCl formed and produces the main disinfecting action of added chlorine solutions.


Hypochlorous acid dissociates almost instantaneously into hydrogen and hypochlorite ions.


The reaction is reversible. The dissociation depends on the pH and temperature.


Hypochlorous acid exists in a pH dependent equilibrium with hypochlorite ion (OCl-) in swimming pool water.



H2O + HOCl <=> H3O+ + OCl- water + hypochlorous acid <=.> hydronium ion + hypochlorite ion



 Chlorination of swimming pools



: Distribution of HOCl and OCRin water at pH levels




Most swimming pools are sanitized with chlorine-based compounds.



When chlorine compounds are dissolved in water, hypochlorous acid forms, which does the actual sanitizing.


In most cases, the non-chlorine part of the chlorine compound serves no other purpose than to hold the chlorine until the product dissolves.


The three categories of sanitizer contain chlorine in different forms.


All three sanitizers are compatible and effective with other chemicals in swimming pool water.


Each will do its function without causing objectionable tastes, odours or colours in the water, if properly applied.



Swimming swimming pool chlorine may be calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite.



 Chlorine gas in swimming pools





Chlorine is a member of the halogen family of sanitizers.



Its use in swimming pools is in the form of a gas, as a liquid, in granular or tablet forms.


When added to swimming pool water it acts as an oxidizer, sanitizer, disinfectant and biocidal agent.



Chlorine gas is referred to as having 100% available chlorine, is relatively low cost and is used in public swimming pools and most bulk drinking and waste water treatment systems.



However, it is a gas that must be delivered in bulky metal cylinders and has to be applied to the water through sophisticated metering systems operated by trained personnel.


It is highly corrosive, toxic, and very acidic because of the H3O+ and Cl-.


Operators of regulated public swimming pools may be required to install separate feeding equipment to add soda ash to neutralize the acidity from the chlorine gas.


If chlorine gas were the only chemical available to disinfect water, there would be few home swimming pools.




 Inorganic hypochlorites





Hypochlorites including calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite and lithium hypochlorite are used as a disinfectant, sanitizer, bactericide, algicide and oxidizer in swimming pool water.



Calcium hypochlorite is also used as a disinfectant in drinking water.


 Calcium hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)2





Calcium hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)2, 65% available chlorine, white granular powder or compressed into pucks, pH 11.8, also contains 5 to 8% of insoluble material, which can cause cloudy water.



A by-product of this reaction is the calcium ion, (Ca2+), a major component of water hardness, and a contributor to scaling tendencies in the swimming pool.





Ca(OCl)2 + H2O  Ca2+ + 2OCl- + H2O

calcium hypochlorite + water  calcium ion + hypochlorite ion + water





 Chlorinated isocyanurates, cyanuric acid, (CNOH)3





Chlorinated isocyanurates, stabilized chlorine, are a group of chlorine swimming pool sanitizers that contain stabilizer (cyanuric acid or isocyanuric acid) as the granular form dichlor 56% available chlorine and the tablet or stick form trichlor 90% available chlorine, the latter usually used in a chlorine feeder. 



Chemical feeder: a device that dispenses chemicals into the swimming pool water at a predetermined rate. 


Some provide chlorine or bromine while others add cyanuric acid, (CNOH)3, also called conditioner and stabilizer.


A granular chemical added to the swimming pool water, which provides a shield to chlorine for


 protection from the UV radiation from the sun. It is also found in dichlor / trichlor products.






 Dichlor





: Trichloroisocyanuric acid, TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3, white crystalline powder, disinfectant, bleaching agent






"Dichlor" is the common name for dichloroisocyanuric acid, C3HCl2N3O3, or the active ingredient in dichlor cleansing powder sodium dichloroisocyanurate C3Cl2N3NaO3.



 Dichlor is a quick dissolving chlorine compound made up of chlorine and cyanuric acid (stabilizer) and has a pH of 6.9.


Shock treatment with dichlor is not recommended as it may result in over stabilization and chlorine lock.


If dichlor is used, a monthly check of the cyanuric acid level is recommended, to prevent over stabilization and chlorine lock.






18.7.2.5 Chlorinating concentrates





Both the granular and tablets forms are based on cyanuric acid, (CNOH)3, the central structure of which is composed of alternating carbon and nitrogen atoms.



In the granular form two atoms of chlorine are added, giving an available chlorine of 56%.


Because this is a sodium salt, it has excellent solubility at 26.1% w / v and a nearly neutral pH of 6.7.


It may be added directly to the swimming pool by hand broadcasting or it can be pre-dissolved and added as a hypochlorite solution.


The tablet form contains three atoms of chlorine, giving it 90% available Cl2.


It has a relatively low pH of 2-3.


Because of its high available chlorine content, much less needs to be added.


So it, too, has a minimal impact on pH.


Its low solubility of 1.2%. w / v makes it ideal for use in tablet form in continuous feeding systems.


This trichloro product should not be added directly to the swimming pool in either its tablet or granular form.


Its high available chlorine, slow solubility and acidic pH give it the potential to bleach, or pit any swimming pool surfaces that it contacts.


Both products are free of insoluble residues, produce a minimal impact on pH and do not contribute to water hardness or scaling.


After the chlorine has been consumed in performing the sanitizing functions, the cyanuric acid remains dissolved in the water to provide maximum stabilization for the free chlorine residual.





Secondary chemical treatment with substances that control pH and buffer the swimming pool, is also needed for optimum swimmer comfort.



Depending on swimming pool conditions, secondary treatment might include decolorizing, additional algicide, and chemicals to adjust mineral levels (hardness) or retard evaporation.




 Chlorinating tablets, chlorinating concentrate





Pool chlorinating concentrates provide the effectiveness of HOCl, the ease and convenience of concentrated solids, and the benefits of stabilization, to provide outstanding water quality with minimum effort and expense.



Granular compounds react with water to produce the same active sanitizing species, hypochlorous acid. Therefore, it is an effective bactericide and algicide that will oxidize organic contaminants.


Tablets react similarly, but produce three units of hypochlorous acid.


Both the granular compounds and tablets have a by-product, cyanuric acid, which is supposed to stabilize free chlorine residual without interfering with its sanitizing effectiveness.


However, the binding action of cyanuric acid reduces the concentration of free available chlorine and demonstrably reduces sanitizer efficiency.


Pool owners who use cyanuric acid must have higher free residual chlorine to compensate for this fact so that sanitizer efficiency is maintained.


Some Australian States have banned the use of cyanuric acids in commercial installations. So to describe cyanuric acid products as a conditioner is misleading.




 Hypochlorous acid, HOCl





Hypochlorous acid, HClO, is the active form of chlorine in swimming pool water.



Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid and dissociates poorly below pH 6, so it exists mainly as HOCl at low pH. Between pH 6.0 and 8.5, a very sharp change occurs from undissociated HOCl to almost complete dissociation. 


At 20oC and pH greater than 7.5, hypochlorite ions, OCl-, predominate. HOCl is about 100 times more effective as a sanitizer than OCl- because the negative charge on the OCl- ion hinders it entering living cellular structures and oxidizing the contents.




 Free chlorine in waters.
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: معالجة مياه حمامات السباحة (انواع الكلور المستخدم /الجرعات اليومية /الجرعات الطارئة)   السبت يونيو 06, 2015 3:59 am

Free chlorine (free available chlorine, free residual chlorine, residual chlorine) is the amount of chlorine left in the swimming pool water after the chlorine demand has been satisfied.



It is the amount of free chlorine in the swimming pool water that is available to oxidize, sanitize or disinfect the water.


Free chlorine is active chlorine and is not combined with any other molecule, e.g. ammonia.


It is free to kill bacteria and algae in a swimming pool and is the chlorine available to do its job of sanitizing the water.


A portion of the free available chlorine is present as hypochlorous acid, which reacts to destroy organic material in the swimming pool water.


The standard method for determining free chlorine is to measure the amount of oxidant by its ability to liberate iodine from acidified iodide solution.


Titrate a water sample with a standard iodide solution and detect the iodine released by the blue colour formed with a fresh starch indicator.


Find the amount of iodine released by back titration with sodium thiosulfate, hypo.



The reagent is only oxidized to tetrathionate by the iodine. With chlorine it is oxidized to sulfate.
HOCl + 2I- + H3O+ --> Cl- + I2 + 2H2O




hypochlorous acid + iodide ion + hydronium ion --> chloride ion + iodine + water
I2 + 2S2O32- --> S4O62 -+ 2I-




iodine + thiosulfate ion --> tetrathionate ion + iodide ion




Devices called rapid test meters can be used to test for chlorine and pH.




With a DPD test kit, DPD1 shows free available chlorine and DPD3 shows total chlorine. The difference, if any, is the level of combined chlorine.





 Available chlorine



Available chlorine content is the term used to compare the amount of oxidizing power that products containing chlorine have compared to gas chlorine (Cl2).



It permits easy comparison of relative values of chlorine compounds.



Available chlorine is the amount of free chlorine that is available to sanitize or disinfect the water.



It is also called Residual Chlorine and Free Available Chlorine.



When chlorine gas dissolves in water, it forms hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid.



Since only the hypochlorous acid sanitizes, only half the chlorine added to the water is usable.


Chlorine gas is defined as 100% available chlorine, so compounds for which all the chlorine in solution is active will have percentages twice the value based on composition. Ca(OCl)2, which is 99.2% available chlorine for the pure material may be quoted as 100% available chlorine.


It produces two moles of active chlorine compared to only one mole from Cl2.


However, it has more than twice the molecular mass, a ratio of 143: 71.


So, on a mass basis, both chlorine gas and calcium hypochlorite are equally effective.


Materials releasing other oxidizing agents when dissolved in water have available chlorine defined in the same manner.



Approximate percentage available chlorine of substances added to swimming pool water are as follows:




Cl2 chlorine gas 100% (by definition)




Bleaching powder (chloride of lime) 35%




Ca(OCl)2 calcium hypochlorite 99%, commercial products 70%




NaOCl, sodium hypochlorite 95% (solution 100%)




Commercial bleach (industrial product) 12%




Commercial bleach (household product) 3%




ClO2, chlorine dioxide 263%




NH2Cl, monochloramine 138%




NHCl2, dichloramine 165%




CONClCONClCONCl, C3Cl3N3O3, trichloroisocyanuric acid 91%




CONClCONClCONH, dichloroisocyanuric acid 72%




CONClCONClCONNa+, sodium dichloroisocyanurate 64%





 Dissolve chlorine in swimming pool water by electrolysis





Add common salt to water at concentration of approximately 4000 ppm to generate hypochlorous acid continuously with an electrolysis cell.



The water will gradually become basic so you must add an acid to keep the pH between 7.2 and 7.8 for optimum swimmer comfort and to maintain sanitizer efficiency.



Cathode (-) reaction: 2e- + 2H2O  2OH- + H2 (g)




water  hydroxyl ion + hydrogen




Anode (+) reaction: 2Cl-  Cl2 (g) + 2e-




chloride ion  chlorine




Overall Reaction: 2Cl- + 2H2O  Cl2 (g) + H2 (g) + 2OH-




chloride ion + water  chlorine + hydrogen + hydroxyl ion





 Swimming pool water and pH



Lower the pH of the swimming pool below pH 7 to increase the oxidizing strength of the HOCl but more acidic solutions will corrode many components For tiled swimming pools, the recommended pH range is pH 7.4-8.0 and you must add about 200 mg / L calcium chloride to offset removal of calcium salts from the grouting between the tiles.



A test for chlorine in water may measure the free residual chlorine or the free residual chlorine plus the chloramines, which are termed combined chlorine. 



The lower the pH, the more
readily chloramines form. Above pH 7 few chloramines form, so keep the pH above 7.





 Superchlorination, shock treatment, breakpoint chlorination





: Chlorine dosage and residual chlorine for breakpoint chlorination




Superchlorination is adding 7 to 10 times the normal dose of chlorine to the swimming pool water to destroy ammonia, nitrogen, chloramines and other contaminants.




Shock treatmen is adding large amounts of an oxidizer such as chlorine, hydrogen peroxide or potassium peroxymonosulfate to the swimming pool water to destroy ammonia and nitrogen compounds, chloramines and other contaminants.




Superchlorination is used to get rid of chloramines.



When HOCl is added to pool water at first chloramines form by reaction with nitrogen compounds from humans.


With increased concentration of HOCl the chloramines are destroyed as in the the following equation with the products being off-gassed.,


But with excess HOCl, the chlorine concentration in the water rises as chlorine no longer combines with organic compounds.



2NH3 + 3HOCl  N2 (g) + 3HCl + 3H2O




ammonia + hypochlorous acid  nitrogen + hydrochloric acid + water




When chlorine in its various forms is added to water, it is used up in oxidizing any material for which it is a sufficiently strong oxidizing agent, e.g. iron II, sulfide, nitrite.



Next, chloramines, called combined chlorine, form from reactions of chlorine with organic nitrogen compounds.


The breakpoint when further addition of chlorine is not used to oxidize nitrogenous compounds, but remains as free available chlorine.


When you superchlorinate or shock treat your swimming pool, the goal is to reach a high enough level of free chlorine to break apart all molecular bonds, specifically the combined chlorine molecules, ammonia or nitrogen compounds and to completely oxidize all organic matter. If you add enough chlorine to achieve this breakpoint chlorination, chlorine added after that point will be free available chlorine.



Superchlorination refers to further additions of chlorine that will remain in the water as residual chlorine to react with any material later added to the swimming pool water.



Maintain a free chlorine residual at all times to achieve sparkling clear, sanitary swimming pool water by periodic super chlorination of the swimming pool water.





When chloramines are removed, better efficiency of chlorine is achieved. More of the chlorine residual can then exist as the free or active form, rather than as the less effective combined form.



You can use potassium monopersulfate for strong oxidation reactions to oxidize any chloride ion back to chlorine.


Superchlorination is the remedial action that should be taken when the DPD test detects the presence of 0.2 ppm or greater of combined chlorine in the swimming pool.


Superchlorination simply involves the addition of 5 to 10 × normal daily dose of chlorine.


Super chlorination should be routinely performed on very hot days under heavy loads after heavy rains or if DPD test shows combined chlorine in excess of 0.2 ppm combined chlorine.


Superchlorination is a remedial action and is recommended to remove gross amounts of chloramines, 


correct eye and nasal discomfort, or destroy a visible algae growth. It also eliminates waiting, vacuuming, scrubbing and back washing to remove algae that will have appeared while chloramines accumulated.



However, although it works well, eventually if you keep loading chemicals and contaminants in a swimming pool you will have problem
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تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
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الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: معالجة مياه حمامات السباحة (انواع الكلور المستخدم /الجرعات اليومية /الجرعات الطارئة)   السبت يونيو 13, 2015 1:11 am

[ltr]          [/ltr]
[ltr]           MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]   Parameter                         Standard[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Fecal coliforms                  <1 CFU/100 ml[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Escherichia coli                 <1 CFU/100 ml[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Pseudomonas aeruginosa           <1 CFU/100 ml[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Staphylococcus aureus            <30 CFU/100 ml[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
 
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]           PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]   Parameter                         Standard[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Alkalinity                         60 to 150 mg/l CaCO3[/ltr]
[ltr]                                                     [/ltr]
[ltr]Chloramines        indoor pools    ≤0.5 mg/l [/ltr]
[ltr]                   outdoor pools   ≤1.0 mg/l[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Residual disinfectant[/ltr]
[ltr]   Free chlorine:  indoor pools    0.8 to 2.0 mg/l [/ltr]
[ltr]                   outdoor pools   0.8 to 3.0 mg/l [/ltr]
[ltr]   Total bromine                   2.0 to 5.0 mg/l [/ltr]
[ltr]   Ozone                           0.0 mg/l[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Hardness                           150 to 400 mg/l CaCO3[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]pH                                 7.2 to 7.8[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Turbidity                          ≤1.0 NTU[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________            [/ltr]
 
[ltr]the following physicochemical parameters, at the corresponding minimum frequencies:[/ltr]
[ltr]________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]                           SAMPLINGS[/ltr]
[ltr]_________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]          Parameter                        Frequency[/ltr]
[ltr]_________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Alkalinity                     Once a week[/ltr]
[ltr]_________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Residual disinfectant          Before the opening of the pool, [/ltr]
[ltr](only the measurement of       after closing and every 3 [/ltr]
[ltr]disinfectants used is          hours during operation[/ltr]
[ltr]required)[/ltr]
[ltr]_________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Chloramines (only when         Before the opening of the pool,[/ltr]
[ltr]chlorine is used)              after closing and halfway[/ltr]
[ltr]                               through operation[/ltr]
[ltr]_________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]pH                             Before the opening of the pool,[/ltr]
[ltr]                               after closing and halfway[/ltr]
[ltr]                               through operation[/ltr]
[ltr]_________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Clarity                        Before the opening of the pool,[/ltr]
[ltr]                               after closing and halfway[/ltr]
[ltr]                               through operation[/ltr]
[ltr]_________________________________________________________[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Temperature                    Before the opening of the pool,[/ltr]
[ltr]                               after closing and halfway[/ltr]
[ltr]                               through operation[/ltr]
[ltr]_________________________________________________________  [/ltr]
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