مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثالأعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
تنظيف وتطهير وغسيل واعادة تاهيل الخزانات


معمل تكنولاب البهاء جروب
 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
سابقة خبرتنا فى اختيار خطوط الانتاج لعملاؤنا
 
1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 تنظيف وتطهير وتعقيم واعادة تاهيل ابراج تبريد ومنظومه تبريد شركة بيديلايت الهندية للغراء بمدينة السادات

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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عدد المساهمات : 3599
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 50
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: تنظيف وتطهير وتعقيم واعادة تاهيل ابراج تبريد ومنظومه تبريد شركة بيديلايت الهندية للغراء بمدينة السادات   السبت مايو 06, 2017 2:47 pm

TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
TLB
SCIENTIFIC,CHEMICAL&ENVIROMENTAL CONSULTATIONS
INSPECTIONS AND ANALYSIS SUPERVISING CO.LTD
 
BRIGADE.DR. BAHAA BADR EL-DIN MAHMOUD
 
COMMERCIAL CERTIFICATE NO.62543/EGYPT
TAXES CERTIFICATE NO. 381-972-143/EGYPT
 
LAB.CERTIFICTE.NO.1415/1999/2809/EGYPT
EGYPTAIN SYNDICATE OF SCIENTIFIC CONSULTANTS CERTIFICATE NO. 167/32599/1988
 
ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFICATE NO. 04-0130002-08
ISO 14001 : 2004 CERTIFICATE NO.04-0130004-08
ISO 22000 : 2005 CERTIFICATE NO. 04130001-08
OHSAS 18001:2007 CERTIFICATE NO. 04-0130003-08
 
INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION ORG.CERTIFICATE NO.
8162 EGYPT/0002854 ENGLAND/0000666 BELGIUM
 
UNITED NATION ADVISORS CERTIFICATE NO. UN-387-2007
WFUNF CERTIFICATE NO. 07235751 UK
 
CAIRO-EGYPT
MOBILE NO. 002(01063793775/01117156569/01229834104)
TELEFAX NO. 002 (33920988)
     
 
TO /  pidillite COMPANY FOR RESIN ADHESIVES- INDUSTRIAL ZONE-SADAT CITY


REFFERED TO / GENERAL MANAGER


DATE / 5/4/2017


SUBJECT / COOLING WATER SYSTEM TREATMENT


A brief overview


Cooling Towers and Cooling Systems Treatment


Introduction


– The basics


Water is widely used as a coolant with heat being transferred from hot process fluids into cooling water through a heat exchange surface. 


This cooling water then heats up but in evaporative cooling towers, the evaporation of a small percentage of the water reduces the temperature of the rest allowing it to be used again. 


The evaporated water is replaced with make up water.


Evaporative condensers are often used to cool closed systems whereby pipework containing hot process fluids is sprayed with water to remove heat from the system. 


If cooling systems are to operate effectively, their design and water treatment should ensure that they are safe and reliable and that they minimise the use of energy and water.


Water treatment programmes aid these objectives by protecting the structural integrity of the system, through maintaining efficient heat transfer and by controlling microbiological contamination.


Cooling Water


The term cooling water refers to water that is circulated around or through a particular process in order to remove heat from that process


The water that is used in cooling water applications contains impurities.


These impurities can result in a variety of problems within the cooling water system.


The following are the types of impurities found in cooling water supplies, and the types of 


problems these impurities can cause


COOLING WATER IMPURITIES


SOLIDS (Suspended and Dissolved)


Impurities other than gases that are found in water are termed solids.


These solids can be in one of the two forms.


They can be either suspended or dissolved. Suspended solids include sand, silt, or particles of organic matter.


Suspended solids are those impurities that will settle to the bottom of a container of water if it is left undisturbed Any impurity that is dissolved in the water is referred to as a dissolved solid. supply


These are impurities that cannot be seen and will not settle to the bottom of an undisturbed container. Dissolved solids are composed mostly of mineral matter.


The measurement of all impurities that are dissolved in a given water supply is the total dissolved solids( TDS)


HARDNESS


Hardness is a term, which refers to the concentration of calcium and magnesium in water.
Calcium and magnesium compounds become insoluble as the water is heated and temperature increases.


These compounds are primary source of scale in cooling water systems


ALKALINITY


Alkalinity is a measure of bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxyl ions in water. It is possible for all three of these ions to exist simultaneously.


There are many other impurities found in natural water supplies.


The following are some of the most common  ones


Chloride
Sulfate
Ferrous Iron
Ferric Iron
Silica
Sodium
Manganese


pH


pH is the measure of the relative acidity or basicity of water.


The pH scale ranges from to 14 with 0 representing maximum acidity and 14 representing maximum basicity0


Control of pH is critical in the majority of cooling water systems. 7 is neutral, not acidic or basic (alkaline).


It is important to know that the pH scale is logarithmic.


The pH of 2 is ten times more acid than pH of 3 and 3 is ten times acid than pH of 4 (2 is 100 times more acid than 4)


CYCLES OF CONCENTRATION


The accumulation of the impurities in a water supply is referred to as the cycles of concentration.
As water is evaporated, the impurities remain behind.


In a cooling tower system, fresh water is brought into the system to maintain a constant water level
This fresh water brings in more impurities that remain in the tower this water is evaporated


if  the cooling tower water contains twice the level of impurities as the fresh water supply, it is said to have two cycles of concentration.


If left unattended, the impurities in a cooling tower water system increase indefinitely.


The cycles of concentration of a cooling water system can be controlled by removing water with a high level of impurity from the system and replacing it with fresh water containing only the original level of impurities, the process of removing water from the system is called ‘bleed off


COOLING WATER PROBLEMS


Cooling water system problems can be divided into four main categories


. Scale Deposition


. Corrosion


. Microbiological Growth


. Sludge formation & Fouling


These problems can occur in the cooling system heat exchangers, water carrying lines cooling tower, and other system components.


Scale deposition results when the concentration of impurities in the cooling water reaches the level where the water can no longer keep them dissolved.


This point is called the saturation point.


The saturation point can change with temperature and concentration of scale forming constituents Calcium carbonate CaCO3 is the most common scale that may form in cooling water systems.


In the water, calcium ions will combine with bicarbonate to form calcium bicarbonate.


As the temperature of the system increases, calcium bicarbonate  is converted to calcium carbonate


SCALE DEPOSITS


Scale deposits interfere with heat exchangers, reducing their efficiency by insulating the heat transfer surfaces.


If scale deposits accumulate in enough quantity, restriction of water flow and plugging of piping and heat exchanger tubes may occur.


Even a small amount of scale will cost greatly and increase energy costs of cooling


What is scale?


Scale is a hard deposit of predominantly inorganic material on heating transfer surfaces caused by the precipitation of mineral particles in water.


As water evaporates in a cooling tower or an evaporative condenser, pure vapor is lost and the dissolved solids concentrate in the remaining water.


If this concentration cycle is allowed to continue, the solubility of various solids will eventually be exceeded.


The solids will then settle in pipelines or on heat exchange surfaces, where it frequently solidifies into a relatively soft, amorphous scale.


Problems Scale, in addition to causing physical blockage of piping, equipment, and the cooling tower, also reduces heat transfer and increases the energy use.


For example, the thermal conductivity BTU/ [hr"(ft2) (F/in)"]
[size] of copper is 2674, while the common cooling water scale calcium carbonate has a thermal conductivity of 6.4 BTU/ [/size][hr"(ft2) (F/in)"]
[size]. [/size]


A calcium carbonate scale of just 1.5 mil thickness is estimated to decrease thermal efficiency by 12.5 %.


In compression refrigeration systems, scale translates into higher head pressures, hence an increase in power requirements and costs.


For example, 1/8" of scale in a 100 ton refrigeration unit represents an increase of 22% in electrical energy compared to the same size unit free of scale.


Factors


The principle factors responsible for scale formation are:


1. As alkalinity increases, calcium carbonate- the most common scale constituent in cooling systems 
- decreases in solubility and deposits.


2. The second—more significant—mechanism for scale formation is the in-situ crystallization of 
sparingly soluble salts as the result of elevated temperatures and/or low flow velocity. Most salts become more soluble as temperature increases, however, some salts, such as calcium carbonate, become less soluble as temperature increases. Therefore they often cause deposits at higher temperatures.


3. High TDS water will have greater potential for scale formation.
Types
Typical scales that occur in cooling water systems are:


1. Calcium carbonate scale - Results primarily from localized heating of water containing calcium bicarbonate. Calcium carbonate scale formation can be controlled by pH adjustment and is frequently coupled with the judicious use of scale inhibiting chemicals.


2. Calcium sulfate scale - Usually forms as gypsum is more than 100 times as soluble as calcium carbonate at normal cooling water temperatures. It can usually be avoided by appropriate blowdown rates or chemical treatment.


3. Calcium and magnesium silicate scale - Both can form in cooling water systems. This scale formation can normally be avoided by limiting calcium, magnesium, and silica concentrations through chemical treatment or blowdown.


4. Calcium phosphate scale - Results from a reaction between calcium salts and orthophosphate, which may be introduced into the system via inadequately treated wastewater or inadvertent reversion of polyphosphate inhibitors present in recycled water.


The most common type of scaling is formed by carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, as well as iron salts in water. Calcium dominates in fresh water while magnesium dominates in seawater.


Control
Scale can be controlled or eliminated by application of one or more proven techniques:


1. Water softening equipment – Water softener, dealkalizer, ion exchange to remove scale forming minerals from make up water.


2. Adjusting pH to lower values - Scale forming potential is minimized in acidic environment i.e. lower pH.


3. Controlling cycles of concentration - Limit the concentration of scale forming minerals by controlling cycles of concentration. This is achieved by intermittent or continuous blowdown process, where a part of water is purposely drained off to prevent minerals built up.


CORROSION


The destructive attack of a metal by an electrochemical reaction with it’s environment  is the definition of corrosion.


The deterioration and possible failure of heat exchanger tubes in cooling systems can result in a loss of efficiency or process contamination.


Corrosion in cooling systems can occur in a number of ways


General corrosion is a uniform attack of a metal surface; galvanic corrosion occurs when two dissimilar metals or alloys are connected by a conductive path forming a galvanic corrosion cell.


Pitting corrosion is a randomly occurring, highly localized form of attack on the metal surface.
Pitting is one of the most destructive forms of corrosion


Erosion


corrosion occurs when flow rates are excessive and the metal surface is actual worn away
Corrosion is defined as the destruction or loss of metal through chemical or electrochemical reaction with its surrounding environment. Mild steel is a commonly used metal in the cooling water system that is most susceptible to corrosion. Other metals in general, such as copper, stainless steel, aluminum alloys also do corrode but the process is slow. However in some waters and in presence of dissolved gases, such as H2S or NH3, the corrosion to these metals is more severe & destructive than to mild steel.


What causes corrosion?


Corrosion is a three step electrochemical reaction in which free oxygen in the water passes into a metal surface a one point (referred to as the cathode) and reacts with water and electrons, which have been liberated by the oxidation of metal at the anode portion of the reaction at another spot on the metal surface.


The combination of free electrons, oxygen and water forms hydroxide ions.


The hydroxide ions then combine with the metal ions, which were liberated at the anode as part of the oxidation reaction, to form an insoluble metal hydroxide.


The result of this activity is the loss of metal and often the formation of a deposit.


Corrosion Problems


Common problems arising from corrosion are reduction in heat transfer and water flow resulting from a partial or complete blockage of pipes, valves, strainers, etc.


Also, excessive wear of moving parts, such as pump, shaft, impeller and mechanical seal, etc. may resist the movement of the equipment. Hence, thermal and energy performance of heat exchange may degrade.


Factors


Many factors affect the corrosion rates in a given cooling water system.


Few important factors are:


1. Dissolved Oxygen - Oxygen dissolved in water is essential for the cathodic reaction to take place.


2. Alkalinity & Acidity - Low alkalinity waters have little pH buffering capability. Consequently, this type of water can pick up acidic gases from the air and can


dissolve metal and the protective oxide film on metal surfaces. More alkaline water favors the formation of the protective oxide layer.


3. Total Dissolved Solids - Water containing a high concentration of total dissolved solids has a high 
conductivity, which provides a considerable potential for galvanic attack.
Dissolved chlorides and sulphates are particularly corrosive.


 4. Microbial Growth - Deposition of matter, either organic or inorganic, can cause differential aeration pitting (particularly of austenitic stainless steel) and erosion/corrosion of some alloys because of increased local turbulence.


Microbial growths promote the formation of corrosion cells in addition; the byproducts of some organisms, such as hydrogen sulphide from anaerobic corrosive bacteria are corrosive.


5. Water Velocity - High velocity water increases corrosion by transporting oxygen to the metal and carrying away the products of corrosion at a faster rate. When water velocity is low, deposition of suspended solids can establish localized corrosion cells, thereby increasing corrosion rates.


6. Temperature - Every 25-30°F increase in temperature causes corrosion rates to double. Above 160°F, additional temperature increases have relatively little effect on corrosion rates in cooling water system.


Some contaminants, such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, can produce corrosive waters even when total hardness and alkalinity are relatively high.


Corrosion Types
Many different type of corrosion exist, but the most common is often characterized as general, pitting and galvanic corrosion.


1. General attack: exists when the corrosion is uniformly distributed over the metal surface. The considerable amount of iron oxide produced contributes to fouling problems.


2. Pitting attack: exists when only small area of the metal corrodes. Pitting may perforate the metal in short time. The main source for pitting attack is dissolved oxygen.


3. Galvanic attack: can occur when two different metals are in contact. The more active metal corrodes rapidly. Common examples in water systems are steel & brass, aluminum & steel, Zinc & steel and zinc & brass. If galvanic attack occurs, the metal named first will corrode.


MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTH


Microbiological growth is continually infecting cooling systems.
If not controlled microbes multiply rapidly in the warm cooling water environment.
The accumulation of microbiological growth can lead to fouled heat exchangers, metal deterioration through corrosion, and clogged filters and screens.
The most common types of microorganisms found in cooling water systems are bacteria algae, and fungus


FOULING
Fouling refers to the physical accumulation of suspended solids on the heat exchanger surfaces.
These suspended solids can be composed of microbiological growths or by products, organic material or precipitated inorganic matter.


Mechanical cleaning of cooling systems is very important to help control fouling and biological growth


Temperature Drop Across Tower (ΔT)


Water is cooled predominantly by evaporation. For each 10 oF (5.5 oC) the water is cooled, about 1% of the water is evaporated.


Determining the average ΔT can sometimes be very challenging.
Several ways are:


1. Actual Plant Records of Temperatures - These provide the very best estimate of the average ΔT across the tower. Some large plants will continuously monitor and record this information.
Beware: Many operators of cooling towers will know the design ΔT and give you this as the average ΔT.


Rarely does a tower operate full time at full load (i.e. maximum design ΔT).


2. Measurement of Temperatures - Obviously, measuring the temperature of the
water from the hot return to the tower and then the temperature of the water in the sump will provide the ΔT.


Unfortunately, this will only be the ΔT for that moment in time. Where cooling requirements in a system can vary significantly, multiple measurements over a long period of time are required.


3. Freon Air Conditioning Systems - Air conditioning systems are typically designed to provide sufficient cooling to maintain the temperature in the air conditioned space at 72 oF when the outside temperatures are at their highest and the maximum number of people (a heat source) are occupying the space being cooled.


Therefore, from noon to 5:00 P.M. on a hot summer day, the system will
have a ΔT of 10 oF (typical design).


The rest of the time, the system will be idling at less than maximum load.


Since the flow of water in the system is a constant, and since the heat removal
requirement is less, the temperature of the hot return water will be less and the ΔT therefore will be smaller


In recent times with the increased emphasis on energy conservation, many systems are being operated less than 24 hours/day (12 - 16 hours is typical).


Therefore, during the periods of operation, the average daytime heat load on the system is higher and the ΔT average is therefore higher.


For 12-hour operation, increase the average ΔT by 2 oF, for 16 hours, 1.5 oF. Also, when calculating average daily requirements, remember to reduce the
length of the operating day.


4. Steam Absorption Air Conditioning - System design characteristics vary with
respect to recirculation rates and the ΔT per ton of refrigeration.
However, the ΔT maximums may be reduced by the same percentages as indicated above for freon systems.


5. Evaporative Condensers - Measurement of the ΔT in an evaporative
condenser is not possible since the water is heated, evaporated and cooled in-situ
(all at the same time and place).
Units are usually rated in tons with 3 gpm and 10 oF ΔT typical per ton of cooling.
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عدد المساهمات : 3599
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 50
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تنظيف وتطهير وتعقيم واعادة تاهيل ابراج تبريد ومنظومه تبريد شركة بيديلايت الهندية للغراء بمدينة السادات   السبت مايو 06, 2017 2:49 pm

COOLING WATER SPECIFICATION


The design specifications for c cooling water include requirements for specified values of total hardness, acidity, suspended solids and Langelier saturation index Hardness is expressed in Parts Per Million (PPM) of CaCO3. and specification for hardness is less than 100PPM CaCO3


The purpose of the acidity specification is to minimize acid attack.


The general use specification is 6.0 to 8.5 on the pH scale.


The greater the pH value, the greater the chance of scale formation.


Low pH levels and dissolved oxygen promote corrosion Suspended solids foul the cooler.


The general use specification for suspended solids is maximum 50 PPM


Langelier’s Index is a technique of predicting whether water will tend to dissolve or precipitate calcium carbonate.


The presence of dissolved oxygen in the water may cause water with a “zero” Langelier’s Index to be corrosive rather than “Neutral”.


The general use specification is + 0.5 to +1.0


OTHER PARAMETERS


Parameter                                                 Maximum Concentration
Iron                                                            < 2 ppm
Sulfate                                                       < 50 ppm
Chloride                                                    < 50 ppm
Nitrate                                                       <2 ppm
Manganese                                                <1 ppm
Dissolved Oxygen)                                    0 ppm (as low as possible))
Oil and Grease                                          < 5 ppm
Ammonia                                                   < 1 ppm


Keeping the cooling water within specifications is a significant contributor in maintaining the design performance and reliability of the compressor.


Circulating Water System Design Data -affecting the circulating water cycles of concentration and the treatment equipment selection are:


1. Cooling tower evaporation rate -


The evaporation rate is calculated based on the heat rejected by the cooling tower and site-specific conditions such as relative humidity and wet bulb temperature.


As a “Rule of thumb”, the evaporation rate is approximately 1.0 percent of the cooling tower recirculation rate for each 10 °F temperature drop across the cooling tower.


The percentage varies depending on the plant's geographic location.


The evaporation rate used for final design should come from the cooling tower supplier.


2. Cooling tower drift rate - The drift rate is a function of the type of tower (induced, forced, or natural draft) and the internal mist eliminator design.


3. Circulating water recirculation rate - The recirculation rate is determined by the heat balance for the cooling system.


4. Cooling tower, piping, and heat transfer equipment construction materials and linings (if used) - The material selection determines the need for corrosion inhibitors or for modification of chemical operating parameters for equipment protection.
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عدد المساهمات : 3599
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 50
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تنظيف وتطهير وتعقيم واعادة تاهيل ابراج تبريد ومنظومه تبريد شركة بيديلايت الهندية للغراء بمدينة السادات   السبت مايو 06, 2017 2:54 pm

FIRESTLY


ACCORDING TO THE MEETING TODAY IN YOUR FACTORY AND MEETING THE CONCERN PERSONS TO REVIEW AND DISCUSSING THE PROBLEMS OF TEMPERATURE DEGREES OF INPUT AND OUTPUT OF THE REACTORS WHICH INFLUENCING IN COOLING OF PRODUCTS AND INCREASING THE BATCH TIME MORE THAN THE REQUIRED TIME BY 5 HRS MORE THAN THE PREDICT TIME IN SUMMER WEATHER AND FOR 3 HRS IN WINTER WEATHER SO GOING TO CHECK THE COOLING TOWERS AND PIPES AND BASINS TOO TO DETERMINE THE HEAD OF PROBLEMS:-


1-THE ANALYSIS OF INPUT AND OUT PUT WATER SAMPLES
(INCREASING THE TDS/CONDUCTIVITY/SALINITY)OF BOTH OF WATER SAMPLE


2-FROM REFFRENCE SCHEMATIC TABLE FROM THE CONCERN PERSONS THAT DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE IS (5 TO 4 TO 3 TO 2 DEGREE AT THE START OF BATCH AND DECREASING AFTER 2 HRS OF COOLING REQUIRED THAT’S MEANING THERE ARE MORE THAN ONE REASONS OF CONTAMINATION DECREASING THE QUALITY OF 2 COOLING TOWERS


3-THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE COOLING TOWERS AND PRODUCTION LINE IS MORE THAN 100 M2WITHOUT ANY STERELIZATION DUING LOSS OF COOLING TEMPERATURE


4-THERE ARE NO SOFTENER BEFOR INPUT OF COOLING TOWERS AND FROM THE BASIN


SO WE SUGGESTING THE FOLLOWING TREATMENT:-


CHEMICAL TREATMENT


If a cooling water system is to operate effectively and efficiently, chemical treatment must be used to address the problems of scale, corrosion, microbiological growth, and fouling.


A competent cooling water treatment program will address each of these
problem areas either through chemicals or the use of pretreatment equipment such as filters and separators.


Chemical products are available that will control scale formation
and deposition, control corrosion of the metal surfaces, and control growth of
microorganisms. These products can be applied separately or in combination depending upon the needs of the system.


The success of a cooling water treatment program
depends upon the selection of the correct products and the control of those products as well as the control system through bleed-off


Water Treatment


Water treatment programmes in cooling systems are aimed at controlling scale, corrosion, fouling and microbiological contamination.


The formation of insoluble calcium and magnesium salts results in scale, a rock like coating which may not only lead to a reduction in heat transfer but also act as a breeding ground for bacteria. 


One factor is the increase in concentration of dissolved salts in the system as water is lost through evaporation; if the hardness salts are kept in solution- scale will not form. 


In many cases, scale inhibitor chemicals such as polyphosphates, phosphonates, acrylate polymers and copolymers are used. 


These either work by making the calcium / magnesium salts soluble or by altering the crystal structure so that it does not adhere to the heat exchange surfaces. 


The addition of acidic chemicals to lower the pH and alkalinity also reduces the potential for scale formation and is a means of scale control sometimes employed in larger cooling systems.


Corrosion in a cooling system results in the loss of metal from a surface, which may be seen as pitting and is often associated with the formation of deposits. 


It is accelerated by high levels of dissolved oxygen particularly in conjunction with low pH (low alkalinity) although excessive alkalinity can also be a factor as can temperature and the amount of dissolved solids.


When dissimilar metals and alloys come into contact, an electrochemical reaction known as galvanic corrosion may also take place; this is affected by the pH and conductivity of water within the system.


Corrosion may also result from chloride attack on stainless steel and microbial activity (microbial corrosion).


Unfortunately the conditions which are optimum to reduce scale formation are those likely to favour corrosion. 


Chemical corrosion inhibitors which act by forming a film and thereby protecting the metal surface are often used. 


There are many types of corrosion inhibitors used in cooling systems including nitrites, phosphates, silicates, zinc, phosphonates, azoles and soluble oils.


The water within a cooling system provides optimal growth conditions for many species of bacteria, including Legionella spp.


A build-up of biofilm within a system will not only inhibit the heat transfer efficiency of the system and block pipe work but will also encourage the growth of Legionella bacteria and may promote the formation of under deposit corrosion.


A correct biocidal treatment regime must therefore be implemented with regular checks to ensure that microbiological control is maintained.


There are two main types of biocide:  
 
Oxidising biocides simply oxidise microbial cells and will kill most micro-organisms including bacteria, algae, fungi and yeasts. 


Examples include sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide and bromine.


Non-oxidising biocides kill micro-organisms typically by disrupting the organism’s metabolism or damaging the cell wall. 


Examples include isothiazolines, 2-2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, glutaraldehyde, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate  and quaternary ammonium salts


Bio dispersants are also used to break up any deposits of microorganisms allowing the biocides to attack the organisms more effectively. 


They inhibit the attachment of microorganisms to metal surfaces.


Sediment build up can lead to fouling particularly in low velocity areas. 


Fouling may be reduced by the use of products which clean the cooling tower packs and antifoam products.


Surfactants may also be used to penetrate deposits enabling them to be washed away from the deposition surface and anionic polymers may be used to prevent the agglomeration and subsequent deposition of suspended solids.


Water treatment chemicals


FOR FLUSH RAPID CLEANING


USE THE 7X1 CHEMICAL FOR WASHING AND CLEANING AND TREATMENT OF THE ALL COOLING TOWERS SYSTEM INCLUDING THE TOWERS/PIPES/BASIN BY INJECTING THE CHEMICALS AND RECYCLING ITS WITH 24 HRS PERIOD AND DRAING ITS WITH ALL OF CONTAMINATIONS


THAT WILL INCREASING THE DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE BY (8-10 C) THROUGH THE SPRING TIME AND BY(6-9C)THROUGH THE SUMMER TIME


FOR DIALY TREATMENT


FOR COOLING TOWERS &CHILLERS TREATMENT
[ltr]
Product benefits ;
[/ltr]
 
[ltr]-          is a blend of corrosion inhibitors that help to protects all metals normally found in closed recirculating system .[/ltr]
 
[ltr]-          Since this product contains no chromate , discharge is restricted . In addition is generally has no adverse effect on lubricating oils , rubber gaskets and other non metallic .[/ltr]
 
[ltr]-          Helps extended equipment life . Convenient liquid form .[/ltr]
[ltr]
Principal use
[/ltr]
[ltr]-          it is multifunctional , nitrite based chemical treatment used for the control of corrosion and scale in closed cooling systems , chiller water systems and systems containing aluminum and other metals .[/ltr]
 
[ltr]General description[/ltr]
 
[ltr]is a liquid product containing a combination of corrosion inhibitor , scale inhibitor , algaecide,oxygen scaveanger and a buffer and a treatment indicator dye .[/ltr]
 
The components of coolants are the following:



• Water


• Propylene Glycol


• Corrosion Inhibitors

• Hard Water Stabilizers

• Coolant Inhibitor Stabilizers

• Antifoamants

• Dyes

.Oxygen scavangers
.Algacides
. ph adjustmenter
Physical properties :---



Molecular formula                             C3H8O2 


Molar mass                                        76.09 g/mol



Specifications
(Industrial Grade)
Water, max (% by weight)                                                    0.2
Acidity, as acetic acid, max (% by weight)                          0.005
Specific Gravity @ 25/25°C                                                 1.0350-1.0365
Color, max (APHA)                                                             10
Chlorides, as C1, max (% by weight)                                 0.001
Boiling Range (°C Initial Boiling Point, min.                  185
Dry Point, max                                                                   190
Typical Physical Properties
Boiling Point @ 760 mm Hg (°C)                                    187.4
Coefficient of Expansion @ 20°C, per °C                      0.00073
Density @ 25°C (kg/m3)                                                 1.322
Dielectric Constant @ 20°C (esu)                                  32.0
Fire Point (°C)                                                                         107
Flash Point, COC (°C)                                                            107
Freezing Point (°C)                                                                Supercools
Heat of Vaporization @ 760 mm Hg (joules/g)                    711
Molecular Weight                                                                 76.09
Pour Point (°C)                                                                     -57
Refractive Index @ 20°C (Nd                                              1.3239
Specific Gravity @ 20/20 °C                                                1.0381
Specific Heat @ 20°C (joules/g °C)                                    2.481
Spontaneous Ignition Temperature (°C)                           446
Vapor Density (air = 1)                                                      2.52
Viscosity @ 20°C (cp)                                                        56.0
Provides Excellent Protection In Four Key Areas:-
Freeze-Up Protection--
Boil-Over Protection--
Corrosion Protection--
Heat Transfer--
 
Performance Characteristics:---
-- Antifreeze/Coolant demonstrates outstanding corrosion prevention performance in all standard industry tests.
 
-- Meets all the requirements of ASTM D5216 (Coolant) and the corrosion prevention requirements of ASTM D3306,ASTM D4985, GM 1899 AND GM 1825 including ASTM D 1384 (glass ware corrosion), ASTM D 4340 (hot surface aluminum corrosion), ASTM D 2570(simulated service) and ASTM D2809(cavitation erosion corrosion / aluminum pumps)
-- Antifreeze/Coolant provides outstanding protection against boil-overs and freeze-up damage
GENERAL CONCENTRATION FORMULA
ANTIFREEZE                                                     50%
Water                                                                   50%
Protects Against Freeze-Ups Down To             - 26 F

Protects Against Boil-Overs Up To                 256 F*



CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS FOR CONC.(50/50%)
Water
Propylene Glycol 
Sodium phosphate
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Silicate
Sodium Tetraborate
[ltr]Dosage[/ltr]
 
[ltr]the specific dosage will very depending up on the operating conditions and make – up water characteristics of your system .[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Consult your TLB representative for specific recommendations for your system.[/ltr]
[ltr]For normal feed water= 1 liter/30 m3[/ltr]
[ltr]For soft water = 1 liter/45 m3[/ltr]
[ltr]
Feeding may be added directly to the system either as received or in water dilution with softened water .
[/ltr]
 
[ltr]Feed lines and pumps should be mild steel , stainless steel , copper , Teflon , polyethylene , pvc , polypropylene , or rubber .[/ltr]
 
THE SUGGETION OF ANOTHER TREATMENT:-


FIRESTLY/


INCREASING THE SIZE OF BASIN TO BE MORE 4 TIMES THAN THE NOWADAY DIMENSION SIZE


SECONDLY/


MUST BE THERE ARE A CHILLER AFTER OPEN COOLING TOWERS TO DECREASING THE TEMP.DEGREE TO BE BETWEEN 6-12 C THAT WILL ACHIVED THE WANTING TEMP.


THIRDLT/


IF YOU UNWANT TO SET UP A CHILLER,WE WELL MODEFIDING BY INCREASING THE FAN RADIUS AND RPM OF THE FAN TO INCREASING THE TEMP.DIFFERANCE
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عدد المساهمات : 3599
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 50
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: AIR- COOLED WATER CHILLER   السبت مايو 06, 2017 2:56 pm

[size=35]AIR- COOLED WATER CHILLER[/size]


5 CUBIC METER/CYCLE


Cooling data


Chilled water inlet/outlet temp. (30/10 c)
Ambient temp.20 c
Refrigerant R-22


Construction


Zinc cooled galvanized steel casting. Weather proof
Heavy gauge steel base


Components


Hermetic compressors
Rubber mounting under compressors
Shell & tube / aluminum fins condenser coil
Direct drive propeller fans
Totally enclosed fan motor


Refrigeration circuit


Expansion valve
Replaceable core filter drier
Liquid line shut off valve


Safety control


Phase failure retry
Anti freeze thermostat
Built in motor protection
High low pressure switch
Compressor anti recycle timer


Power & control panel


Weather proof ip55
Control circuit breaker
Compressors contactors
Condenser fan motors contactors
On/off switch for each compressor


FIANCIAL QUOTATION
TOTAL PRICE = 00000 EG.P
WITHOUT TAXES
PAYMENT ORDER
60% ADVANCED PAYMENT
40% AT DELIVERY AND ERECTION AND INSTELLSATION
DELIVERY TIME
4 WEEKS
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