مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثالأعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
تنظيف وتطهير وغسيل واعادة تاهيل الخزانات


معمل تكنولاب البهاء جروب
 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
سابقة خبرتنا فى اختيار خطوط الانتاج لعملاؤنا
 
1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 معالجة الصرف الصناعى(كيف تحدد معالحة مياه الصرف الصناعى)

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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عدد المساهمات : 3557
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: معالجة الصرف الصناعى(كيف تحدد معالحة مياه الصرف الصناعى)   الأحد ديسمبر 12, 2010 12:24 pm


Wastewater Characterization

the nature of the wastewater because the effluent quality depends upon the influent characteristics
The treatment capacity and treatment efficiency of systems are calculated based upon the
influent concentrations and the effluent requirements
Efficiency = [(C in - Cout)/Cin ] 100
Where
Cin = Influent concentration (typically mg/L)
Cout = Effluent concentration (typically mg/L)
And Efficiency is expressed as a percentage(%)
Also, the treatment capacity over time for biochemical processes is usually modeled as a
first-order equation such that
-kt
Ct/C0 = e
Where
( Ct = Concentration at time, t (typically in mg/L
C0 = Initial concentration at time = 0 (typically in mg/L)
k = reaction rate constant (typically in days)
t = time (typically in days)

Fundamental Concepts for Environmental Processes curriculum:-
the wastewater strength (concentration of contaminants), availability of the contaminants as a food source, the characteristic are of being easily metabolized or being difficult to metabolize.
designing the treatment processes.
Typical components of raw sewage entering the septic tank and their concentrations are:

Table 1: Raw Sewage Characteristics
Component Concentration Range Typical conc
Total Suspended Solids, TSS 155 – 330 mg/L 250 mg/L
155 – 286 mg/L 250 mg/L bod
pH 6 -9 s.u. 6.5 s.u
Total Coliform Bacteria 10(8) – 10(10) CFU/100mL 10(9) CFU/100mL
Fecal Coliform Bacteria 10(6) – 10(8) CFU/100mL 10(3) CFU/100mL
Ammonium-Nitrogen, 4 - 13 mg/L 10 mg/L
Nitrate-Nitrogen, NO3-N Less than 1 mg/L Less than 1 mg/L
Total Nitrogen 26 – 75 mg/L 60 mg/L
Total Phosphorus 6 - 12 mg/L 10 mg/L

mg/L = milligrams per liter
s.u. = standard units
CFU/100 mL = Colony-Forming Units per 100 milliliters

One of the most common onsite wastewater treatment systems is the traditional septic
tank followed by a soil absorption system. As the raw sewage flows through the
treatment process, some contaminants are removed, and some contaminants are
transformed. Figure 1 illustrates a traditional septic tank followed by a soil absorption
system.
The Septic Tank
The septic tank, illustrated in figures 2 and 3, reduces the BOD5 slightly without an
effluent filter (screen). With an effluent screen, the BOD5 reduction and the TSS
reduction is enhanced. The septic tank processes convert the organic nitrogen
compounds into ammonium; however no conversion of ammonium to nitrate is expected
to occur in the septic tank. The septic tank alone is not expected to affect the phosphorus
concentrations in the wastewater. Some coliform bacteria removal and reduction occurs
in the septic tank.
Table 2: Septic Tank Effluent Characteristics
Component Concentration Range Typical conc
Total Suspended Solids, TSS 36 - 85 mg/L 60 mg/L
bod 118 - 189 mg/L 120 mg/L
pH 6.4 – 7.8 s.u. 6.5 s.u
Fecal Coliform Bacteria 10(6) – 10(7) CFU/100mL 10(6) CFU/100mL
Ammonium-Nitrogen, 30 – 50 mg/L 40 mg/L
Nitrate-Nitrogen, NO3-N 0 – 10 mg/L 0 mg/L
Total Nitrogen 29.5 – 63.4 mg/L 60 mg/L
Total Phosphorus 8.1 – 8.2 mg/L 8.1 mg/L

The leaching system

The leaching system – sometimes called the soil absorption system or dispersal system
also performs physical and biochemical treatment. The physical processes include
straining and filtration and detention or retardation of the wastewater in the soil
Designing the various hydraulic components.
The soil particles provide surfaces on which biochemical processes occur. As the
effluent moves through the soil infiltrative surface, microbial growth is stimulated and a
biomat forms.
As the wastewater moves through the biomat and into and through the
soil, organic compounds are used as a source of food by the microbes and converted to
carbon dioxide and water
Organic Matter + O2 + microbes => CO2 + H2O + new microbes (Equation 1)

As shown in this equation, oxygen is required for the reaction to proceed to carbon
dioxide and water.
In well-sited and properly-functioning septic systems, this process
occurs within the boundaries of the site upon which the system is located, and the
wastewater is renovated within a distance that prevents contamination of groundwater or
surface water.
Ammonium in the wastewater is converted to nitrite and then to nitrate by processes
using free oxygen (aerobic processes) called nitrification.
First, ammonium is converted t o Nitrite plus hydrogen ions (Equation 2).
Then, nitrite is converted to nitrate hydrogen ions (Equation 3). )
NH4 + O2 + microbes => NO2 + H (Equation 2))
(NO2 + O2 + microbes => NO3 + H (Equation 3)
As with microbial degradation of organic matter, the nitrification reaction requires the
presence free oxygen. Thus, the soil must be unsaturated to allow the wastewater to
move through the soil under unsaturated conditions.
If the nitrified wastewater encounters anoxic conditions and contains enough organic
compounds, the nitrate can be converted to nitrogen gas and other gases by anaerobic
processes called denitrification as shown in Equation 4
NO3 + Organic compound + microbes => N2 (gas) (Equation 4)
These processes are affected by the concentration of the wastewater applied to the soil.
if typical septic tank effluent is applied, the development of the biomat will be
different
from its development when advanced secondary quality effluent is applied, or if high
strength wastewater is applied
Typical values of contaminant concentrations at 0.6 meters and 1.2 meters (2 feet and 4
feet)

The Concept of Load

In addition to the daily flow variation, seasonal variations may also occur. Typically
wastewater treatment processes are sized to treat the maximum daily flow rather simply having the capacity to treat the average daily flow. than

The maximum daily flow is the maximum flow that occurs over the course of a single day, perhaps 450 gallons per day for a typical 3-bedroom home.
The average daily flow is the average of the flow may be 160 gallons per day
that occur during single days over the course of some period of time – perhaps years,

Philosophically (if not particularly statistically rigorous) designing the wastewater
treatment system performance based upon average daily flow would imply that 50
percent of the time, the system is in compliance, and 50 percent of the time the system is
out of compliance. For this reason, treatment systems are typically designed to produce
the required effluent quality when treating the maximum daily flow. This concept is the
hydraulic loading rate. In sizing for the hydraulic loading rate, the volume of water

flowing through the treatment process is the design parameter under consideration. For
the concept of mass loading rate, the idea of the mass or weight of a particular
contaminant flowing through the system over some time is considered. The “organic
loading rate,” the number of pounds or kilograms of BOD per day, or the “solids loading
rate,” the number of pounds or kilograms of TSS per day are common mass loading rates.

By using the wastewater characteristics determined by estimates from tables or typical
residential wastewater, or perhaps by sampling and analyzing a particular wastewater
stream, and combining this with the flow rate, the wastewater “load” may be calculated.
The calculation is the product of the flow rate and the concentration as follows
Load = Concentration X Flow
Typically, as shown in the tables provided in this document, the concentration is given in
units of mg/L and the flow rate is given in units of gallons per day.
Conversion to
consistent units is required to produce units of mg/day or lbs/day or other expressions of
weight (or mass) of contaminant per time.

Other materials make up only a small Wastewater is mostly water by weight
portion of wastewater, but can be presen in large enough quantities to endanger
public health and the environment Because practically anything that can be flushed down a toilet, drain, or sewer can be found in wastewater, even house hold sewage contains many potential pollutants.
The wastewater components that shoul be of most concern to homeowners and communities are those that have the potential to cause disease or detrimental environmental effects
Organisms
Many different types of organisms live in wastewater and some are essential contributors to
treatment. A variety of bacteria, protozoa and worms work to break down certain carbon-based (organic) pollutants in wastewater by consuming them.
Through this process, organisms turn wastes into carbon dioxide, water, or new cell growth
Bacteria and other microorganisms are particularly plentiful in wastewater and accomplish most of the treatment.
Most wastewater treatment systems are designed to rely in large part on biological processes.
Pathogens
Many disease-causing viruses, parasites and bacteria also are present in wastewater and enter from almost anywhere in the community.
These pathogens often originate from people and animals who are infected with or are carriers of a diseaseFor example, graywater and blackwater
from typical homes contain enough pathogens to pose a risk to public health.
Other likely sources in communities include hospitals, schools, farms, and food processing Some illnesses from wastewater-related plants. sources are relatively common.
Gastroen teritis can result from a variety of pathogens in wastewater, and cases of illnesses caused by the parasitic protozoa, Giardia lambia and Cryptosporidium.
. Other important wastewater-related diseases include hepatitis A, typhoid, polio, cholera, and dysentery. Outbreaks of these diseases can occur as a result of drinking water from wells polluted by wastewater, eating contaminated fish, or recreational activities in polluted waters.
Some illnesses can be spread by animals and insects that come in contact with wastewater
Even municipal drinking water sources are not completely immune to health risks from wastewater pathogens.
Drinking water treatment efforts can become over whelmed when water resources are heavily polluted by wastewater.
For this reason wastewater treatment is as important to public health as drinking water treatment.
Organic Matter
Organic materials are found everywhere in the environment. They are composed of the carbon-based chemicals that are the building blocks of most living things
Organic materials in wastewater originate from plants, animals, or synthetic organic compounds, and enter wastewater in human wastes, paper products, detergents cosmetics, foods, and from agricultural commercial, and industrial sources
Organic compounds normally are some combination of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen, and other elements.
Many organics are proteins, carbohydrates, or fat and are biodegradable, which means they
can be consumed and broken down by organisms.
However, even biodegradable materials can cause pollution
In fact, too much organic matter in wastewater can be devastating to receiving waters Large amounts of biodegradable materials are dangerous to lakes, streams, and oceans because organisms use dissolved oxygen in the water to break down the wastes.
This can reduce or deplete the supply of oxygen in the water needed by aquatic life resulting in fish kills, odors, and overall degradation of water quality.
The amount of oxygen organisms need to break down wastes in wastewater is referred to as the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and is one of the measurements used to assess overall wastewater strength
Some organic compounds are more stable than others and cannot be quickly broken down by organisms, posing an additional challenge for treatment.
This is true of many synthetic organic compounds developing for agriculture and industry-
In addition, certain synthetic organics are highly toxic. Pesticides and herbicides are toxic to humans, fish, and aquatic plants and often are disposed of improperly in drains or carried in storm water


In receiving waters, they kill or contaminate fish, making them unfit to eat. They also can damage processes in treatment plants
Benzene and toluene are two toxic organic compounds found in some solvents, pesticides, and other products
New synthetic organic compounds are being developed all the time, which can complicate treatment efforts
Oil and Grease
Fatty organic materials from animals, vegetables, and petroleum also are not quickly broken down by bacteria and can cause pollution in receiving environments
When large amounts of oils and greases are discharged to receiving waters from community systems, they increase BOD and they may float to the surface and harden causing aesthetically unpleasing conditions.
They also can trap trash, plants, and other materials, causing foul odors, attract ing flies and mosquitoes and other disease vectors.
In some cases, too much oil and grease causes septic conditions in ponds and lakes by preventing oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the water.
Onsite systems also can be harmed by too much oil and grease, which can clog onsite system drain field pipes and soils, adding to the risk of system failure
Excessive grease also adds to the septic tank scum layer causing more frequent tank pumping to be required.
Petroleum-based waste oils used for motors and industry are considered hazarous waste and should be collected and disposed of separately from wastewater

What is in wastewater
Inorganics
Inorganic minerals, metals, and com pounds, such as sodium, potassium, calcium magnesium, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc are common in wastewater from both residential and nonresidential sources
They can originate from a variety of sources in the community including industrial and commercial sources, storm water, and inflow and infiltration from cracked pipes and leak manhole covers.
Most inorganic substances are relatively stable, and cannot be broken down easily by organisms in wastewater
Dispose of Household Hazardous Wastes Safely Many household

products are potentially hazardous to people and the environment and never should be flushed down drains, toilets, or storm sewers.
Treatment plant workers can be injured and wastewater systems can be damaged as a result of improper disposal of hazardous materials
Other hazardous chemicals cannot be treated effectively by municipal wastewater systems and may reach local drinking water sources.
When flushed into septic systems and other onsite systems, they can temporarily disrupt the biological processes in the tank and soil absorption field, allowing hazardous chemicals and untreated wastewater to reach groundwater.
Some examples of hazardous household materials include motor oil, transmission fluid, antifreeze, paint, paint thinner varnish, polish, wax, solvents, pesticides rat poison, oven cleaner, and battery fluid.
Many of these materials can be recycled or safely disposed of at community recycling centers.
Large amounts of many inorganic substances can contaminate soil and water.
Some are toxic to animals and humans and may accumulate in the environment.
For this reason, extra treatment steps are often required to remove inorganic materials from industrial wastewater sources
Heavy metals, for example, which are discharged with many types of industrial wastewaters, are difficult to remove by conventional treatment methods.
Although acute poisonings from heavy metals in drinking water are potential long-term health effects of ingesting small amounts of some inorganic substances over an extended period of time are possible.
Nutrients
Wastewater often contains large amounts of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of nitrate and phosphate, which promote plant growth.
Organisms only require small amounts of nutrients in biological treatment, so there normally is an excess available in treated wastewater.
In severe cases, excessive nutrients in receiving waters cause algae and other plants to grow quickly depleting oxygen in the water.
Deprived of oxygen, fish and other aquatic life die, emitting foul odors Nutrients from wastewater have also been linked to ocean “red tides” that poison fish and cause illness in humans.
Nitrogen in drinking water may contribute to miscarriages and is the cause of a serious illness in infants called methemoglobinemia or “blue baby syndrome.
Solids.
Solid materials in wastewater can consist of organic and/or inorganic materials and organisms. The solids must be significantly reduced by treatment or they can increase BOD when discharged to receiving waters and provide places for microorganisms to escape disinfection
They also can clog soil absorption fields in onsite systems.
Settleable solids.
Certain substances such as sand, grit, and heavier organic and inorganic materials settle out from the rest of the wastewater stream during the preliminary stages of treatment.
On the bottom of settling tanks and ponds, organic material makes up a biologically active layer of sludge that aids in treatment.
suspended solids
Materials that resist settling may remain suspended in wastewater must be treated, or they will clog soil absorption systems or reduce the effectiveness of disinfection systems.
dissolved solids
Small particles of certain wastewater materials can dissolve like salt in water.
Some dissolved materials are consumed by microorganisms in wastewater, but others, such as heavy metals, are difficult to remove by conventional treatment.
Excessive amounts of dissolved solids in wastewater can have adverse effects on the environment Gases.
Certain gases in wastewater can cause odors, affect treatment, or are potentially dangerous
Methane gas, for example, is a byproduct of anaerobic biological treatment and is highly combustible.
Special precautions need to be taken near septic tanks manholes, treatment plants, and other areas.
where wastewater gases can collect The gases hydrogen sulfide and ammonia can be toxic and pose asphyxiation hazards
Ammonia as a dissolved gas in wastewater also is dangerous to fish.
Both gases emit odors, which can be a serious nuisance.
Unless effectively contained or minimized by design and location, wastewater odors can affect the mental well-being and quality of life of residents. In some cases
odors can even lower property values and affect the local economy.
For example, the color, odor, and turbidity of wastewater give clues about the amount and type of pollutants present and treatment necessary as well as the design, cost, and effectiveness of treatment.
Temperature
The best temperatures for wastewater treatment probably range from 77 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit.
In general, biological treatment activity accelerates in warm temperatures and slows in cool temperatures, but extreme hot or cold can stop treatment processes altogether.
Therefore, some systems are less effective during cold weather and some may not be appropriate.
for very cold climates Wastewater temperature also affects receiving waters. Hot water, for example which is a byproduct of many manufacturing processes, can be a pollutant.
When discharged in large quantities, it can raise the temperature of receiving streams locally and disrupt the natural balance of aquatic life
pH
The acidity or alkalinity of wastewater affects both treatment and the environments.
Low pH indicates increasing acidity while a high pH indicates increasing alkalinity(a pH of 7 is neutral).
The pH of wastewater needs to remain between 6 and9 to protect organisms
Acids and other substances that alter pH can inactivate treatment processes when they enter waste water from industrial or commercial sources
Flow
Whether a system serves a single home or an entire community, it must be able to handle fluctuations in the quantity and quality of wastewater it receives to ensure proper treatment is provided at all times.
Systems that are inadequately designed or hydraulically overloaded may fail to provide treatment and allow the release of pollutants to the environment
To design systems that are both as safe and as cost-effective as possible, engineers must estimate the average and maximum various sources (peak) amount of flows generated by
Because extreme fluctuations in flow can occur during different times of the day and on different days of the week, estimates are based on observations of the minimum and maximum amounts of water used on an hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal basis
The possibility of instantaneous peak flow events that result from several or all water using appliances or fixtures being used at once also is taken into account.
The number, type, and efficiency of all water-using fixtures and appliances at the source is factored into the estimate (for example, the number and amount of water normally used by faucets, toilets, and washing machines), as is the number of possible users or units that can affect the amount of water used (for example, the number of residents, bedrooms, customers students, patients, seats, or meals served)

According to studies, water use in many homes is lowest from about midnight to 5 a.m., averaging less than one gallon per person per hour, but then rises sharply in the morning around 6 a.m. to a little over 3 gallons per person per hour.
During the day water use drops off moderately and rises again in the early evening hours.
Weekly peak flows may occur in some homes on weekends, especially when all adults work during the week.
Engineers must allow for additional flows during wet weather due to inflow and infiltration of extra water into sewers.
Excess water can enter sewers through leaky manhole covers and cracked pipes and pipe joints, diluting wastewater which affects its overall characteristics, and increasing flows to treatment plants
sometimes by as much as three or four times the original design load
BOD–biochemical oxygen demand
The BOD test measures the amount of dissolved oxygen organisms are likely to need to degrade wastes in wastewater.
This test is important for evaluating both how much treatment wastewater is likely to require and the potential impact that it can have on receiving waters.
To perform the test, wastewater samples are placed in BOD bottles and are diluted with specially prepared water containing dissolved oxygen.
The dilution water is also “seeded” with bacteria when treated wastewater is being tested.
The amount of dissolved oxygen in the diluted sample is measured, and the samples are degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenhite)
Then incubated in commen incubation periods are (5/7/20 days)
is the most common. At the end of the incubation period, the dissolved oxygen is measured The amount that was used expressed in milligrams per liter) is indication of wastewater strength.

TSS–total suspended solids
In addition to BOD, estimating the amount of suspended solids in wastewater helps to complete an overall picture of how much
secondary treatment is likely to be required It also indicates wastewater clarity and is important for assessing the potential impact of wastewater on the environment
After larger solids are removed in primary treatment, TSS is measured as the portion of solids retained by a 2.0-micron filter Refer to the table below for some typical TSS amounts in municipal wastewater.
Total Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms
Coliform tests are useful for determining whether wastewater has been adequately treated and whether water quality is suitable for drinking and recreation.
Because they are very abundant in human wastes, coliform bacteria are much easier to locate and identify in wastewater than viruses and other pathogens that cause severe diseases.
For this reason, coliform bacteria are used as indicator organisms for the presence of other, more serious patho gens
Some coliforms are found in soil, so tests for fecal coliforms are considered to be the most reliable.
However, tests for both total coliforms and fecal coliforms are commonly used.
There are two methods for determining the presence and density of coliform bacteria.
The membrane filter (MF) tech nique provides a direct count of colonies trapped and then cultured.
The multiple tube fermentation method provides an estimate of the most probable number (MPN) per 100 milliliters from the number
of test tubes in which gas bubbles form after incubation

Typical Municipal Wastewater Characteristics (in milligrams per liter)
weak medium strong minimum treatment req.

BOD 110 220 400 30
TSS 100 220 350 30
(N) 20 40 85 variable
(P) 4 8 15 variable

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