مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
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 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
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2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 دراسة جدوى لشركة استثمارية اجنبية لتصنيع الكربون النشط من قش الارز فى مصر(النسخة الانجيليزية)

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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: دراسة جدوى لشركة استثمارية اجنبية لتصنيع الكربون النشط من قش الارز فى مصر(النسخة الانجيليزية)   الأحد مارس 06, 2011 12:33 pm

Activated carbon production from rice hulls

مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
مصر
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين
استشارى علمى
مقدمة
INTRODUCTION

Activated carbon is produced from organic based materials such as coconut shells, palm-kernel shells wood chips, sawdust, corn cobs, seeds etc.
The raw material is carbonized to obtain the char or carbonaceous material, which is activated to yield the highly porous final product.

Typically, surface areas ranging from 500- 1400m2/g are obtained for the activated material .

The activated carbon particle has two types of pores existing in it by which adsorption take place.

These are the macropores (>10-1 um) and the micropores (10-3 - 10-1 um)
The macropores provide a passageway to the particle's interior and to the micropores but do not contribute substantially to the particle surface area.

The micropores, on the other hand, are responsible for the large surface area of
activated carbon particles and are created during the activation process.

It is in the micro pores that adsorption largely takes place.
Thus, two main parameters are relevant to the performance of the activated carbon namely the surface area and the pore volume or structure.

The pore volume limits the size of the molecules that can be adsorbed
whilst the surface area limits the amount of material which can be adsorbed, assuming a suitable molecular size.

Various methods are available for the activation process but the most widely used are the treatment of the carbonaceous material with oxidizing gases such as air, steam or carbon dioxide and the carbonization of the raw materials in the presence of chemical agents such as Zinc chloride, Magnesium chloride, Calcium chloride or Phosphoric acid.

The carbonized material is treated with oxidizing gas in a furnace or retort at 800-10000C under conditions that permit removal of nearly all the adsorbed hydrocarbons and some of the carbon to increase the surface area.

Chemical treatment activation proceeds under conditions that prevent the deposition of hydrocarbons on the surface.

The raw material is mixed with the chemical agent, dried and calcined at temperatures up to 9000C.



Other methods such as activation of the carbonaceous materials or chars mixed with Potassium hydroxide hydrate as activating chemical , treatment of char with sulphur vapour at elevated temperatures and subsequent desulphurisation with hydrogen and activation in an inert atmosphere under reduced pressure without
the use of any chemical activator, are reported.

Treatment of charcoal and carbon black with oxidizing solutions such as nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acidalso increase the surface area as well as introduce acidic oxides (carboxylic, phenolic and quinonic) to the carbon surface.

Activated carbon has several important uses including solution purification such as in the clean-up of cane, beet and corn-sugar solutions, removal of tastes and odours from domestic and industrial water supplies, vegetable and animal fats and oils, alcoholic beverages, chemicals and pharmaceuticals and in waste water treatment. It also finds use in purification of gases, liquid phase recovery and separation processes as well as its use as catalyst and catalyst supports.


For liquid purification or decolorising purposes, it is normally used in the powder form whilst for vapour or gas adsorption, it is used in the form of hard granules.

Liquid phase adsorption or decolorising activated carbons are usually light, fluffy powders produced from low-density material such as sawdust or peat.

Gas phase adsorption activated carbons are hard, dense granular materials
produced from high-density raw materials such as coconut shells, palm kernel shells, coal or coke.


PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM AND EQUIPMENT FABRICATION


The process being developed at the Institute of Industrial Research for activated carbon production is shown in the flow diagram, The preparation of raw materials involves sorting out of dirt or separation of shells from husk in case of coconut and
crushing of material to suitable size.

The crushed material is dried to remove moisture. The moisture content of the
raw material is an important parameter. If the moisture content is about 20%, the water driven off during the early stages of pyrolysis or carbonisation, reacts with off-gases or impedes their removal.

This allows the off-gases to crack and restrict micropores openings in the product.

The Carbonisation or Pyrolysis Unit is being designed to make provision for collection of the distillate material which contains three main components:

•Condensable gases which yield tar.
•Non-condensable gases of high calorific value and which can be used to supplement fuel for heating.
•Aqueous phase containing pyrogenic acids.

The carbonised material may further be crushed to size, where necessary, before activation. The activation system consists of a boiler unit to generate steam and a furnace containing the activating stainless steel chamber.

The activation shall be carried out under fluidised bed conditions to facilitate uniform heat distribution and uniform gassolid contact.

The steam activation reaction produces gases such as H2, CO and C02.

The hydrogen and carbon monoxide content of this gas mixture can be burnt in an auxiliary burner to provide supplementary heat for the boiler or for the carbonisation process.

The carbonised product, shall be ground into powder of specified mesh size for liquid phase or decolorising carbons.

In the case of gas phase adsorbing carbons, the granular material shall be ground by tumbling with grit or using any other suitable technique, so as to smooth sharp edges that might abrade into powder during use.

CONCLUSION

There are potential raw material resources for the production of activated carbon to meet local industrial needs.

In addition to the identified raw materials coconut shells, palm kernel shells and
sawdust, other raw materials such as corncobs, rice hulls and vegetable wastes can also be used to produce activated carbon.

Besides the gold mining industries, the breweries and soft drink industries that currently use activated carbon, other potential users such as corncobs, rice hulls and vegetable wastes can also be used to produce activated carbon.

Besides the Gold mining industries, the breweries and soft drink industries that currently use activated carbon, other potential users such as the textile industries, soap manufacturing industries, vegetable oil nulls and the Water and Sewerage Corporation can also be sensitised to use this commodity thereby creating more market for the product.


عدل سابقا من قبل Admin في الجمعة مارس 11, 2011 12:53 am عدل 1 مرات
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
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مُساهمةموضوع: دراسة جدوى لشركة استثمارية اجنبية لتصنيع الكربون النشط من قش الارز فى مصر2   الأحد مارس 06, 2011 12:43 pm

. Future of Active Carbon In Egypt

The production of activated carbon from bagasse and rice husk by a single-stage chemical activation method in short retention times (30–60 min) was examined in this study.

The raw materials were subjected to a chemical pretreatment and were fed to the reactor in the form of a paste (75% moisture).

Chemicals examined were ZnCl2, NaOH and H3PO4, for temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C.

Of the three chemical reagents under evaluation only ZnCl2 produced activated carbons with high surface areas.

BET surface areas for rice husk were up to 750 m2/g for 1:1 ZnCl2:rice husk ratio.

BET surface areas for bagasse were up to 674 m2/g for 0.75:1 ZnCl2:bagasse ratio.

Results were compared to regular two-stage physical activation methods.

Target /Costumers Target /Product /New Market/ Opportunities
.Water purifications use up to 2000 Tons/year
•Sugar Processing Factories use up to 2000 Tons/year
• The two most widely used products in both applications are:
.Aquasorb1000 & Aquasorb2000
•The specs for them are available
• Technology for recharging Activated Carbon
•Industrial Gas Waste Management
•Providing odorless & 2. Industries
• Water Treatment Companies


Reference info of activated carbon
Raw materials for production of activated carbon


Activated carbons can be obtained from various carbon containing raw materials, including wood, coal andbrown coal, etc. In production of activated carbons, coal, coconut shells and wood serve most of all as raw materials

Activated carbon is an adsorbent

The adsorbent’s qualities depend on surface area Pores sizes Pores distribution structure

The adsorbed substance is the substance that should be adsorbed (removed from water). It is very important to know exactly the characteristics of adsorbed substance, as it possible to find the size and molecular structure of the substance being absorbed.
There are three reasons to learn the size of molecules; growth of molecules causes drop in solubility; growth of molecules caused draw in adsorptionas molecules cannot penetrate in the adsorbent’s pores; the bigger the molecules are the more time it takes for them to penetrate into pores
As a rule activated carbon is applied in three forms.
PowderAC (PAC),Granulated AC (GAC),Compressed AC (CAC).
PAC consists mainly of particles smaller than 80 mesh (mesh – is a cell, 80 mesh corresponds to diameter of 0,177 mm) and is used mainly for refinement of liquids inbakery PAC is mixed with water after adsorption of mixtures it goes through mechanical filter or is precipitated.
GAC is mainly formed from big particles of coal 50 mesh (0,297 mm) and used for refinement of liquids (water and liquid products) and gases. Sometimes used GAC (for some applications) can be reactivated and used again.
Drum-like CAC grains are used for refinement of gases as catalysts and in recovery of gold Application of CAC is similar to that of GAC. CAC can also be reactivated and used again


Production of active carbon and its application

First of all carbon-containing raw materials are subjected to carbonization, i.e. kilning at high temperature, inert atmospherewith no air access.
However, the resultant carbonate has pure adsorption qualities, as it is of small size.
That’s why the carbonate is subjected to activation to receive specific structure and to improve adsorption properties.

Saw dust is the best material for production of activated carbon.

To obtain 5-6 tons/day it is required to have 50-52m3 of sawdust/day or 1400-1500 m3/month, thickness of the fraction10-80 mm, ash content:≤2%, moisture - 30%.
Fir and pine sawdust is preferable.

For high quality it is better to use brown coal and high-moor peat, the quality of carbon made of low-moor peat, shredded stalks of straw, corn, reeds etc is lower .

It is more difficult to use black coal, as it becomes fluid as the temperature reaches 450 C, so its caking and further coking intsted of activation take place, so the whole process should be premanently supervised .

Activation

There are two methods of coal activation

The first method -treatment withwater vapor.
We make the equipment that activated coal by water vapors. Water vapor activation is performed at temp. of 800-1000 C, under thorough control, causing chemical reaction between vapor and coal. This results in the developed pores structure and in increase of internal surface of coal. Using such a process it is possible to obtain coal possessing various adsorption properties. Activation by water vapor allows to obtain carbon with internal surface up to 1500m2/gr. Owing to such surface area activated carbons can display brilliant adsorbents qualities. Nevertheless, only part of this surface area is good for adsorption because large molecules of adsorped substances cannot penetrate into small pores.

The second method is activation of coal by special chemical agents. This method is muhc more expensive.

Activating part Carbon containing substances are activated by high-temperature vapor (800-1000°C) or dehydrating chemicals.

Raw materials Additive, no less than required by PR China standards Molecular formula Standards
Phosphoric acid 1% - 900 kg H3PO4 GB2091—80
Sulphuric acid 1% - 900 kg H2SO4 GB625—89
Hydrochloric acid 1% - 900 kg HCL GB622—89
Water 40 tons/1 ton of coal H2O



Chemical activation

Chemical activation consists in heating initial materials to 400-500°C in presence of strong chemical dewatering agent (phosphoric acid, zinc chloride etc) After that some materials are subjected to acid washing. Acid washing eliminates metals, ash and other water-soluble substances (such as silicon) that can be washed out during operations

Pores structure

There are three types of pores in active carbons, namely, macropores, transition pores and micropores, these types differ in sorption mechanisms of vapors and gases.

Mactopores are the largest pores.
They have avary highupper limit of radius of curvature (about 2000nm), lower limit - about 100 nm.

Capillar condensation of vapors do not fill them.Specific volume of macropores is the range of 0,2—0,8 cm3/g, specific surface is 0,5—2 м2/g.

Thus, adsorption onthe surface of macroporesisof no practical interest. Their surface is equipotent to that if non-porous carbon sorbent with similar chemical nature, whereas the pores themselves play the role of channels for penetration of substances inside sorbent .

Transientpores are less than macropores,
their curvature is inthe range of 1.5 -100 nm, i.e. it is much larger,than the size of the adsorbed molecules. Specific volume of the transient pores is rather small - 0.02 - 0.10 cm3/g, specific surface - 20 -70 m2/g.
Capillar consensation of vapors can fill these pores. At concentrations lower than that of corresponding capillar condemsation, the vapors absorption cab take place .

Micropores
are the smallest pores of active carbons with radius of less than 1.5 nm, the sizes of pores are comparable with those of the molecules adsorbed.
As differs from the two first types of pores, inmicropores al thepores volumes is the space with adsorption field, therefore any ideaof layer-by-layer filling and of the surface of microporesloses any sense.
Specific volume of micropores of active carbons is 0,20—0,60 cm3/g. Thus micropores play the most important part in adsorption .


Field of use of activated carbons

Chemistry:
Refinement of organic acids
Adsorption of organic compounds from solutions
Recuperation of organic solvents
Adsorption of vapors and gases of organic substances
Refinement of mineral oils
Refinements of electrolytes, production of galvanics
Production of electrodes
Palladium catalyst support Vinyl-chloride synthesis catalyst’s support Vinyl-acetate synthesis catalyst’s support

Food industry:
Refinement of liquors
Decoloration of sugar syrups
Refinement ofstarch-treacle solutions
Refinement of xylite and xylitane
Production of organic acids (citric acid, lactic acid, ect)
Refinement and finishing of vegetable and animal oils and fats
Refinement of low alcohol drinks and carbonated drinks
Refinement of starch and treacle solutions, glucose, glucose-galactose alcohols, lactuloses
Refinement and deodorization of edible oils and fats
Production of citric, lactic, propionic etc. organic acids
Decoloration of sugar syrups and xylite
Production of caramels

Pharmaceutics :
Refinemen solutions at production of medical preparations
Production of synthetic rubbers and polyvinylchloride resins.
Support for production of catalysts
Production of bioactive substances
Hemosorbent for medical industry
Production of antibiotics
Production of blood substitutes
Production of carbon tablets
Production of calcium gluconates
Sodium chloride
Production of Allohole tablets
Production of cerebrolysine
Production of heparin

Industrial refining
Refinement vapors and gases
Sulphur refinement and process liquors refinement in gas recovery and processing.
Refinement of solutions, vapors, gases during oil processing
Productions of mineral oils, chemical reagents and paint and varnish product
Elimination of spills of oil and oil products.
Refinement of vapor condensates and boiler waters
Refinement of industrial gases and ventilation exhausts
Production of glassy products

Fuel and energy industry
Refinement of vapor condensate
Refinement of circulating waters
Sulphur refinement and process liquors refinement in gas recovery and processing.
Oil and gas recovering and processing
industry: Productions of mineral oils, chemical reagents and paint and varnish products Elimination of spills of oil and oil products.

Metal manufacture
Gold extraction from cyanide pulps and other solutions
Ore floatation of minerals
Extraction of precious metals
Environmental protection
Preparation of drinkable water
Accessories for additionaldrinkable water refinement filters.
Refinement of sewage
Refinement ofvent exhausts the air of harmful gases.
Application of activated carbon in water treatment

مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
مصر
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين
استشارى علمى
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://technolabelbahaagp.googoolz.com
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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
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مُساهمةموضوع: دراسة جدوى لشركة استثمارية اجنبية لتصنيع الكربون النشط من قش الارز فى مصر(النسخة الانجيليزية)   الخميس مارس 10, 2011 5:16 am


rice husk pollution problem

•Rice husk is one of the most important pollution problems which affect Egypt weather because the farmers shun it burning, leading to a black cloud and in particular, on the Delta and up to the capital.
It is possible to take advantage of the agricultural waste and convert it into useful products such as fertilizer, paper, active carbon and other materials useful for the environment.

by
colonel.dr
bahaa badr
sceintific advisor
rice husk

Rice husk Burning rice husk
Rice hus ash (RHF) Carbonized rice husk (CRH)

What is rice husk?

The outermost layer of the paddy grain is the rice husk, also called rice hull. It is separated from the brown rice in rice milling. Burning rice husk produced rice husk ash (RHA), if the burning process is incomplete carbonized rice husk (CRH) is produced.

Importance of rice husk
Around 20% of the paddy weight is husk. In 2008 the world paddy production was 661 million tons and consequently 132 million tons of rice husk were also produced. While there are some uses for rice husk it is still often considered a waste product in the rice mill and therfore often either burned in the open or dumped on wasteland. Husk has a high calorific value and therefore can be used as a renewable fuel.

Production of rice husk

Rice husk is produced in the first step in the milling process when the husk is removed form the grain in the husking stage of the rice mill.

Characteristics of rice husk and RHA

Rice husk is difficult to igninte and it does not burn easily with open flame unless air is blown through the husk. It is highly resistant to moisture penetration and fungal decomposition. Husk therefore makes a good insulation material.

Rice husk has a high silica (SiO2) contents which means that it decomposes slowly when brought back to the field. It also makes it a poor foder
Handling of rice husk is difficult because it is bulky and dusty

. It has angle of repose is about 40-45° which means that it's flow ability, e.g. in feed hoppers is very poor.
Rice husk has low bulk density of only 70-110 kg/m³, 145 kg/m³ when vibrated or 180kg/m³ in form of brickets or pellets. It thus requires large volumes for storage and transport, which makes transport over long distances un-economical.
When burned the ash content is 17-26%, a lot higher than fuels (wood 0.2-2%, coal 12.2%). This means when used for energy generation large amounts of ash need to be handled.

Rice husk has a high average calorific value of an 3410 kcal/kg and therefore is a good, renewable energy source.

Because of the high silica contents rice husk is very abrasive and wears conveying elements very quickly.

Rice husk is not an easy fuel. One concern in rice husk firing is the behavior of the ash, i.e., its slagging and fouling tendency caused by a low melting point of the rice husk ash.

Utilization of rice husk and rice husk ash

Rice husk is produced centrally at rice mills and has low moisture content since the paddy is dried to 14% or less before milling.

The disadvantage is that rice husk has very low density and therefore transport over longer distance is expensive. The most obvious use of rice husk is therefore the use as fuel at or close to the rice mill. But rice husk is also used for some non-energy purposes.

Typical uses fo rice huskNon energy applications

Energy generation
Combustion
Gasification
Pyrolysis
Incorporation in soil
Bio-fertilizer additive
Animal husbandry
- low quality feed
- litter material
Sorbent material in environmental remediation
Building material with good thermal insulation
Pest control agent
Heat generation
- cook stoves
- furnaces for heating the air in rice dryers
- brick kilns
Gas for cook stoves
Syngas for electricity generation
In research phase few commercial applications
Steam generation for
- parboiling
- electicity generation from steam turbines
- kinetic energy from steam engines
Depending on the energy conversion efficiency the final product can be either white rice husk ash or black carbonized rice husk.

Description

White, fine structure
Contains around 85-90% amorphous silica
around 25% of the weight of husk
Black, often still in the shape of the husk
Depending on the combustion still contains 8-15% carbon

Use

Partial cement replacement material for high-strength concrete
Steel additive for quality steel or "tundish powder in steel production.

Used in manufacturing of refractory bricks
Insulators
Activated carbon
Soil conditioner for poor soil
Carbon sequestration, bio char
Charcoal as fuel

Examples for non-energy applications

Use of rice husk in animal husbandry
Rice husk is sometimes used as animal feed stuff and as litter material for pet animals . Untreated hull is low in protein and digestible energy. Husk can be pretreated with 12% NaOH to reduce the silica content from 19 to 3-4% to improve digestibility and used as animal feed.

Examples for energy applications

Cook stoves
Simple rice husk cook stoves are used for a long time in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

The origin of the desing is unkown, some sources mention Cambodia, others Vietnam.

After a Vietnamese scholar had brought a unit from Vietnam for testing to IRRI in the Philippines many national systems and projects have adapted the technology to local conditions and similar stoves can now be found in most Asian countries.

The cook stoves come in different sizes and usually can boil a pot of water in around 10-15 minutes.

The fuel is cheap and the stove itself very inexpensive but the disadvantage i is that the user is exposed to small, silica rich ash particles in the flue gas.

To generate a cleaner flame the cook stove principle was modified into a gasifyer burner that has a clean flame. Commerical applications exist in the Philippines and in India.

Rice husk cook stove in Myanmar

Process heat generation for rice drying and parboiling
Rice husk furnaces for heating the drying air in rice dryers is the most obvious application for using rice husk since the husk is available as waste at the rice mill and drying of paddy is often done by millers. But only recently with increasing fosil fuel prices there has been a major shift away from kerosene towards rice husk furnaces.
e.
Mechanical power generation

In Myanmar rice husk is still used as fuel for boilers which generate heat for steam engines.

These steam engines, most of them being produced in the beginning of the last century, still power many rice mills in Myanmar though belt transmissions.

While this is old technology we still believe that this is worth mentioning here as an example for sustainably using rice husk as energy source over decades in an environment where many millers are not connected to the electicity grid.


High fuel prices have led more recently to a revival of rice husk gasifiers, partly for electricity generation (see below) but also ain may cases coupled with a modified internal combustion engine that drives power a rice mill through a belt transmission.

Several commercial units were developed in India and expecially in Cambodia rice millers have installed several units with 20-70 kW capacity.

Electricitiy generation

Small scale applictions between 10-200 kW usually use a rice husk gasifyer coupled with a modified internal combustion engine that drives a generator.

Larger commercial power plants using rice husk typically have a capacity of 1-4 MW and consist of an advanced burner, a boiler and a steam turbine coupled with a generator. Several units have been installed worldwide.

Utilization of carbonized rice husk

Studies conducted by (Haefele et al., 2008) indicate that the bio-char produced by small scale energy applications through incomplete combustion, can improve poor soils but may have little effect on fertile soils, but also lower CO2 emissions.


Rice hulls

Rice Hulls


Another term for rice husks is rice hulls. As far as non-edible properties, rice hulls are probably the most useful part of the plant.

The hull is the strong protective covering of the grains. The hulls are high in lignin and silica, which give them their strength and also make it very useful in a variety of industries. They are a byproduct of processing so they are a very inexpensive material.

They are a good source of fiber and though humans don't eat them, they are not entirely indigestible, making them a great cheap pet food.

Another property of rice hulls is that they are very difficult to burn and let in moisture due to their natural protective qualities. These properties allow rice to act as a great insulator.

Rice hulls are also very useful in the compost industry. Rice hulls are a great example of a way to use every part of the food we farm even if we don't ingest it ourselves.

Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice. In addition to protecting rice during the growing season, rice hulls can be put to use as building material, fertilizer, insulation material, or fuel.Contents
Production

Rice hulls are the coating for the seeds, or grains, of the rice plant. To protect the seed during the growing season, the hull is made of hard materials, including opaline silica and lignin. The hull is mostly indigestable to humans.

One practice, started in the seventeenth century, to separate the rice from hulls, it to put the whole rice into a pan and throw it into the air while the wind blows.

The hulls are blown away while the rice fell back into the pan. This happens because the hull isn't nearly as dense as the rice. These steps are known as winnowing. During the milling process, the hulls are removed from the grain to create brown rice, the brown rice is then milled further to remove the bran layer to become white rice.


At the processing plant, the rice is cleaned and hulled. At this point, brown rice needs no further processing. If white rice is desired, the brown rice is milled to remove the outer bran layers. Hulling is the process to remove the hull from the kernel.
Hulling can be done by hand by rolling or grinding the rough rice between stones. However, more often it is processed at a mill with the help of automated processes.

The process of mechanical hulling

The rough rice is first cleaned by passing through a number of sieves that sift out the debris. Blown air removes top matter.

Once clean, the rice is hulled by a machine that mimics the action of the hand held stones.

The shelling machine loosens the hulls from the rice. About 80-90% of the kernel hulls are removed during this process.

From the shelling machine, the grains and hulls are conveyed to a stone reel that aspirates the waste hulls and moves the kernels to a machine that separates the hulled from the unhulled grains.

By shaking the kernels, the paddy machine forces the heavier unhulled grains to one side of the machine, while the lighter weight rice falls to the other end.

The unhulled grains are then siphoned to another batch of shelling machines to complete the hulling process.

Hulled rice grains are known as brown rice.

Use

A number of rice-producing countries, (e.g. Thailand), are currently conducting research on industrial uses of rice hulls. Some of the current and potential applications are listed below.

Chemistry

Rice hulk can be used to produce mesoporous molecular sieves (e.g., MCM)[1][2], which are applied as catalysts for various chemical reactions, as a support for drug delivery system and as adsorbent in waste water treatment.

Pet food fiber

Rice hulls are the outermost covering of the rice and come as organic rice hulls and natural rice hulls. Rice hulls are an inexpensive byproduct of human food processing, serving as a source of fiber that is considered a filler ingredient in cheap pet foods

Building material

Rice hulls are a class A insulating material because they are difficult to burn and less likely to allow moisture to propagate mold or fungi. It has been found out that when burned, rice hull produces significant amounts of silica. For these reasons it provides excellent thermal insulation.

Pillow stuffing

Rice hulls are used as pillow stuffing. The pillows are loosely stuffed and considered therapeutic as they retain the shape of the head.
Fertilizer

Rice hulls are organic material and can be composted. However, their high lignin content can make this a slow process. Sometimes earthworms are used to accelerate the process.

Using vermicomposting techniques, the hulls can be converted to fertilizer in about four months.
SiC production
Rice hulls are a low-cost material from which silicon carbide "whiskers" can be manufactured. The SiC whiskers are then used to reinforce ceramic cutting tools, increasing their strength tenfold

Fuel

With proper techniques, rice hulls can be burned and used to power steam engines. Some rice mills originally dispose of the hulls in this way
Brewing

Rice hulls can be used in brewing beer to increase the lautering ability of a mash.
Juice extraction

Rice hulls are used as a "press aid" to improve extraction efficiency of apple pressing.[4]

Rice husk ash

The ash produced after the husks have been burned, (abbreviated to RHA), is high in silica. A number of possible uses are being investigated for this.

These uses include
aggregates and fillers for concrete and board production
economical substitute for microsilica / silica fumes
absorbents for oils and chemicals
soil ameliorants
as a source of silicon
as insulation powder in steel mills
as repellents in the form of "vinegar-tar"
as a release agent in the ceramics industry
as an insulation material for homes and refrigerants
[u]


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Activated carbon production. Equipment

Name Specifications
Boiler 1 unit.


Standard steam outflow (kg/hr) steam 6 tons/hr
Coal gas consumption 14000 m3 \hour
Smoke-deflecting pressure. PA 2 800
Smoke-deflecting air volume 21 000
Standard amount of power, MwT 4,2
Operating pressure (MPa) 1.25/0.7
Water supply temperature (оС) 20
Active area of boiler (m2) 7.78
Steam temperature (оС) 194
Heat emission (%) 78/79.92
Heating area(m2) Irradiation 17.6
Heating area(m2) Convection 136.5/165.5
Density of carbon black output (mg/Nm3) <100
Smoke density (Ringelman scale) <1
Heat exchanger Corrugated pipe, high frequency welding
Weight of the main unit (т) 34,8 tons
Size 10*4,7*4,1 m
Production area 50 m2
Air-blower, total pressure, PA 2 036
Air-blower, air volume 9200
Water consumption, hour 8 tons
Boiler energy, total 52 kW
AIr blower 7,5kW
Water pump 7,5 kW
Smoke suction device 37 kW
Height of vapor lift 160 meters
Personnel 1-2


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Gas holder 1 unit.

Kiln chamber diameter 2000 mm
Kiln chamber area in section 3.14 m2
Fuel all types of black coal, brown coal, turf
Fuel consumption 600∼1000 kg/hr
Volume of air for gasification 2.2∼2.8 Nm3/kgc
Required amount of vapor 0.3∼0.5 kg produce itself
Volume of gas 2100-2800 Nm3/h
Min heat productivity of gas 5052∼6070 KJ/Nm3
Gas pressure at the outlet 1.5 kPA
Number of rotation of ash bowl 2.23 m/hour
Personnel 3 person/shift
Gas consumption for boiler 60%
Gas consumption for drying equipment 10%
Gas consumption for carbonization stoves 10%
Gas consumption for activation stoves 20%
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Drying equipment 1 unit.

Volume of the shell 16 m3
Speed of the shell 5.8 rpm
Gradient of the shell 3-5%
Total power 7.5 kW.
Weight 10 tons.
Size: 16 m* diameter 1.2 m.
Potantial output 6 tons/hour
Production area 45 m2
Personnel 3 persons
Heat/hr required 275 kcal/hour
Dry vapor 500 kg/hr
Receives raw materials with moisture contents 40%
Final Moisture contents of the materials 4-5%
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Product specifications
Product diameter : 30 mm-60mm
Product density No less than 1.80 gr/cm3
Production area 20 m2.
Granule press for production of activated carbon

Productivity 6-8 tons/hr
Power 11 kW
Outer size 1500*1500*1800mm
Weight 1200kg
Personnel 1 person
Specifications of products
Diameter of product : 30 mm-60mm
Density of the product No less than 1.40 gr/cm3
Production area 10 m2.
Pressure 40 tons
SOurce of force Permanent mechanical force


Productivity 30-35 tons/hour
Size 3200 *1300*1300 mm.
Fraction of the fed raw materials ≤150 mm.
gap between two rollers 5-10 mm
Rotations of stationary rollers 292 rpm
Rotation of adjustable rollers 285 rpm
Engine power 6-phases 18.5 kW.
Size of rolling drums Ø720 × 500 mm.
Weight 3500 kg.
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Mixer. Two-shaft mixing machine

Productivity 20-25 m3/hour
Size 4500*900*1000 mm
Straight angle of the mixing cutter 200-200
Distance between centers of two shafts 360 mm
Reverse rotation shaft diameter 420 mm
Rotation of shaft 50 rpm
Engine power 4-phase, 30 kW
Reducer JZQ500-1Z-12.64
Distance between inlet center and outlet center 2000 mm
One step of mixing cutter 332 mm
Weight 3,2 tons
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Elevator

Outer, spherical-shaped bearing UCP311 (2 pcs.) UCK309 (2 pcs.)
Size 10*300*24500
Hopper movement speed 1005mm/sec.
Bucket 49 pcs. (49*500=24500)
Main shaft rotation speed 60*1005/(400*3.14)=48 rpm
Engine Y132S-4, 5.5 kW, 1440 rpm
Column's gear reducer ZQ350-20-II
V-belt B2100
Stoves
LU-1000 XS-1 carbonization stove

Specification of stoves 4 units
Personnel 1
Production volume 2 m3
Material of the body Alloyed heat-resistant steel
Thickness of metal of the body 5 mm
Size 2100*3000*2400 mm
Productivity 500 kg cycle stove (2 000 kg/day )
Time of wood carbinization cycle 8 hr
Time of brown coal carbonization cycle 30 min
Time of turf carbonization cycle 1 hr
Fuel consumption 25 kg/hr
Type of fuel any
electric energy demand 1,5 kW
Utilization of emitted gases burnt out in closed circulation system
Degree of carbonization less than 93% at least 95%
Size of raw material granules 30-60 mm
Moisture No more than 5 %
Type of burner 15×104Kcal/h.
Number of burners 4
Max temperature 1 430°
Max temperature deviation inside the stove -\+ 3%
Temperature mode is adjustable, 3 modes 750, 900 and 1450о С
Operating temperature 500о С
Weight difference of raw materials and finished activated carbon 3 tons of fuel granules afford 1 ton of carbonized coal
Gas consumption during the first hour 100 m3 hour.
Gas consumption at further operation 0 m3 operates due to gases emitted at burning of light raw materials fractions.
Weight 3000 kg
The stove includes :
Ventilator
Decompression device

Exhaust gas utilization equipment
Body
Door 1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
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LU- 5000 XS-1 activation stove
2 units.
Steam consumption for activation of 1 ton of coal 4 tons
Burner's type 15*104Kcal/h.
Max temperature 1 430о
Max temperature deviation inside the stove -\+ 3%
Production volume 4 m3
Material of the body Alloyed heat-resistant steel
Thickness of metal of the body 5 mm
Size 2100*4000*2300 mm
Productivity 500 kg cycle (2 000 kg/day)
Time of activation cycle of wood granules 4 hr
Time of activation of brown coal granules 3 hr 30 min
Time of activation of turf granules 4 hours
Fuel consumption 25 kg/stove
Type of fuel any
electric energy demand 5 kW
Size of granules 3-6 mm
Moisture No more than 40 %, with acidic washing
Temperature mode is adjustable 5 modes 450, 750, 900, 1200 and 1450 о С
Operating temperature 900о С
Weight 5000 kg
Number of burners 4
utilization of emitted gases Burned out in closed circulation system
Gas consumption during the first hour 100 m3 /hr
Gas consumption at further operation
0 m3 operates due to gases emitted at burning of light raw materials fractions.
Weight difference of raw materials and finished activated carbon 2,5 tons of carbonized brown coal yield 1 ton of activated carbon .
Degree of activation of surface 100%
Personnel 1
The stove includes:
Ventilator

Decompression device
Exhaust gas utilization equipment
Body
Door 1 unit.
1 unit.
1 unit.
1 unit.
1unit.
Steam supply system 2 sources
Nitriding bath

Size diameter 2,2 m х height 1,8 m
Power 1 kW 2 pumps for agressive media х 0,5 kW =1 kW
Weight 800 kg
Material Stainlee steel
Wall thickness 2 mm
Conveyor

Belt conveyor for feeding dry materials 5000 mm х 400 mm х 350 mm -5 units.
Dry material belt conveyor for carbonization stoves 8000 mm х 400 mm х 350 mm- 4 units.
Dry material belt conveyor to activation stoves 5000 mm х 400 mm х 350 mm- 4 units
Belt conveyor to convey packed coal for sealing 2500 mm х 400 mm х 350 mm -4 unit.
Belt conveyor to convey activated carbon from stoves to packing 6000 mm х700 mm х 3500 mm- 2 units
Belt conveyor for large materials return 16 000 mm х700 mm х 3500 mm 2 units.
Raw materials feeding belt conveyor 6000 mm х 400 mm х 350 mm-6 units.
Total power consumption 3 kW х 27 = 81kW.
Total Weight 13 5000 kg
Self propelled pnematic lift LCUD-2000\HD

Max lifting height 2500 mm
Distance from the load center 600 mm
Height of load forks over the earth 100 mm
Length of load forks 950 mm
Width of load forks 850 mm
Min turning radius 1525 mm
Size of driving wheel 260 mm
Speed of movement at full load 0-6 km/hour
Lifting speed at full load > 4.5 m/min
Speed control method Non-level MOS speed control system
Lifting percentage at full load 5%
Battery 6Q-100AH/24V
Total power 3.4 kW
Power by main unit
Drive motor 1.2 kW
Lifting motor 2.2 kW
Weight 820 kg
Height of the frame during retraction 1850 mm
Max height during the operation 3100 mm
Length of the machine's body 1925mm
Total width 950mm
Number of workers 1
Max lifting capacity 2000 kg
Recommended time of operation 2-8 hrs
LSUGHJ-P5W Packing section

the section includes
Main weighing and packing unit LSUGHJ-P5W – 1 unit.
Belt conveyor 1 unit.
Raw materials feeding belt conveyor 1 unit.
Air compressor 1 unit
Lift type sealing machine 1 unit
Main unit's features :
Accuracy of weighing ±0.2 – 0.4%
Air pressure ≥ 0.36 MPa
Method of weighing Electronic meter
Frequency/pressure 50 HZ 380 V
Total power 7 kW
Main weighing and packing unit LSUGHJ-P5W 200 kg
Lift type sealing machine 100 kg
Belt conveyor 100 kg
Raw materials feeding belt conveyor 250 kg
Air compressor 100 kg
Total weight 750 kg
Manufacturing technology raw materials transportation-transfer hopper-automatic weighing, automatic filling-transporation-bag sealing
Potantial output 300 packing and sealing operations/hour
Bunching attachment 1-25 kg
Number of operators 3 persons; 2 for sealing machine,1 for conveyor
Production area 20 m2
Size: LSUGHJ-P5W Main weighing and packing machine 1400 mm х 1300 mm х 3000 mm
Lift type sealing machine 500*500*1500 mm
Air compressor 900 mmх 350 mmх700 mm
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مُساهمةموضوع: دراسة جدوى لشركة استثمارية اجنبية لتصنيع الكربون النشط من قش الارز فى مصر   الخميس مارس 10, 2011 5:55 am

Batching device

Productivity 50m3/hr
Max diameter of large fraction 60mm
Error of weighing ≤2%
Hopper's volume 3000 L
Number of hoppers 3 units.
Volume of weighted substance 1200 L
Power of belt conveyor 3kW*4
Weight of the unit 4000kg
Outer size 9050*2262*2840
Feeding and clearing of raw materials wheeled or crawled unitsm with electric or diesel motor can be chosen by the customer

Power
Power
Power
Rated speed
Max step
Max uidle speed у
Electric energy consumption
Operating shaft speed
Operating shaft direction
total Power
Hydraulic liquid
Brand
Number of rollers
- Drive roller
- Upper supporting rollers
- Lower sliding rollers
Number of crawls
Length of crawls :
Pressure in the ground
Weight
Lengthх Height х Width
Distance between the wheel's axis
WIdth of rut :
Clearance :
Radius of actvion from the feeding source
Max speed
Working speed
Productivity
Speed at working state
Speed at non-working state
Speed of conveyor/ traction force (km/hour)
Reverse movement speed 15 kW
11 kW
5.5 kW
55.16 rpm
1500 Н.m
392 rpm
16-20 kW/hr.
632 rpm
clockwise
31,5 kW
120 kg
48
16 unit including
4 units
4 units
8 units
90 - 110 units
388mm
7.74 m.
40.2 Kpa
7800 kg
7500mm х 3300mm х 2300mm
1622mm
1435mm
260mm
25 meters
10 km/hour
50 m/hour
10 tons\hior
5 km/hour.
10 km/hour.
Н: 10.45/11768
3.07km\hour
Other units
Packing of activated carbon Unified 5-25
Conveyors Unified 5-100
Hoppers Unified 5-25
Mixers and attritors Unified 5-25
Packing of granules Unified 5-100
Screens Unified 5-100
Elevators Unified 5-100
Crushers Unified 5-100
Movable lifting units Wheeled or crawled by Customer's choice
Is not in the set Complete set
To be purchased on the spot assembling reinforcement, entrance cables, stop valves, ventilation .
Stove for thermal-acidic treatment of activated carbons

Trademark MEGA POWER
Type LU-5000 XS-1 Universal stove
Series НP
Developer USA and Israel
Year of development 2009
Made in China at the developers' enterprices
Purpose Obtaining of activated carbon, obtaining of charcoal, obtaining of nitric, noble heavy and rare-earth metals .
Steam consumption of acidic mixture supplied via aeration pipes 1 ton/hour. 4 tons for 4 hours
Max temperature 1 430°С
Max temperature deviation inside the stove -\+ 3%
Main operating temperature at carbonization 450 °С
Main operating temperature at activation 950 °С
Operating temperature at enrichment of metal salts in nitric acid 1350°С
Main operating temperature at benefecation of swamp ores, swump-turf ores and other ores in organic medium 1230°С


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عدد المساهمات : 3443
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: معدات والات مصنع انتاج الكربون النشط من قشرة وقش الارز   الخميس مارس 10, 2011 10:51 am

Activated carbon production. Equipment
Boiler
Gas holder
Drying equipment
Fuel granules production press
Granule press for production of activated carbon
Mixer. Two-shaft mixing machine
Elevator
Stoves
Nitriding bath
Conveyor
Self propelled pnematic lift LCUD-2000\HD
LSUGHJ-P5W Packing section
Batching device
Feeding and clearing of raw materials
Stove for thermal-acidic treatment of activated carbons
Other units
Packing of activated carbon
Conveyors
Hoppers
Mixers and attritors
Packing of granules
Screens
Elevators
Crushers
Movable lifting units


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معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://technolabelbahaagp.googoolz.com
 
دراسة جدوى لشركة استثمارية اجنبية لتصنيع الكربون النشط من قش الارز فى مصر(النسخة الانجيليزية)
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