مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثالأعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
تنظيف وتطهير وغسيل واعادة تاهيل الخزانات


معمل تكنولاب البهاء جروب
 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
سابقة خبرتنا فى اختيار خطوط الانتاج لعملاؤنا
 
1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 تقييم كفاءة الشيللرات=chilleres efficiency

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تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: تقييم كفاءة الشيللرات=chilleres efficiency   الخميس يوليو 21, 2011 8:45 am

Chiller Efficiency

by
colonel.dr
bahaa badr
chemical consultant

Chillers represent a substantial capital investment and are a major contributor to operating costs in institutional and commercial facilities.

For many organizations, chillers are the largest single energy users, and comprehensive maintenance is critical to ensure their reliability and efficient operation.

While some organizations use predictive maintenance — including vibration analysis, infrared thermography, and rotor bar testing — to diagnose problems in advance, a comprehensive preventive maintenance (PM) plan remains the key to ensuring the best performance and efficiency of a chiller.

Chiller efficiencies have improved steadily over the past decade due to advances in controls, refrigerants and equipment design.

As a result, chillers now have tighter operational tolerances, and regular service and maintenance are more crucial than ever.

When developing a PM plan for chilling equipment, maintenance and engineering managers should consider five essential areas.

Step 1: Maintain a Daily Operating Log
Chiller operators should document chiller performance daily with an accurate and detailed log, comparing this performance with design and start-up data to detect problems or inefficient control setpoints.


This process allows the operator to assemble a history of operating conditions, which can be reviewed and analyzed to determine trends and provide advanced warning of potential problems.

For example, if machine operators notice a gradual increase in condensing pressure during a month’s time, they can consult the daily operating log and systematically check and correct the possible cause of this condition, such as fouled condenser tubes or non-condensables.

Chiller manufacturers can provide a list of recommended data points specific to equipment upon request.

Operators can take data readings daily, once per shift at about the same time.

Today’s chillers are controlled via microprocessor controls, so managers can automate this process using microprocessor-controlled building automation systems.

Step 2: Keep Tubes Clean

One large potential hindrance to desired chiller performance is heat-transfer efficiency.

Chiller performance and efficiency relate directly to its ability to transfer heat, which begins with clean evaporator and condenser tubes.

Large chillers contain several miles of tubing in their heat exchangers, so keeping these large surfaces clean is essential for maintaining high-efficiency performance.
Chiller efficiency deteriorates as tubes become fouled, when mud, algae, sludge, scale or contaminants accumulate on the waterside of heat-transfer surfaces.
The rate of fouling depends on the system type — open or closed — as well as on water quality, cleanliness and temperature.

Most chiller manufacturers recommend cleaning condenser tubes annually, since they typically are part of an open system, and they recommend cleaning evaporator tubes once every three years for closed systems.

But if the evaporator is part of an open system, they recommend periodic inspection and cleaning.

Managers can consider two primary methods for cleaning tubes:

• Mechanical cleaning removes mud, algae, sludge and loose materials from smooth-bore tubes and consists of removing the water-box covers, brushing the tubes and flushing with clean water.

• For internally enhanced tubes, managers should consult the chiller manufacturer for mechanical-cleaning recommendations.

• Chemical cleaning removes scale. Most chiller manufacturers recommend consulting with a local water-treatment supplier to determine the proper chemical solution required.

• A thorough mechanical cleaning should always follow a chemical cleaning.
New chillers feature automatic tube-brushing systems, which can be retrofit onto existing chillers.

These systems use small, nylon-bristled brushes that flow through the tubes for cleaning.

A custom-manufactured, four-way reversing valve is installed in condenser water-piping system, and every six hours, the system automatically reverses the flow through the condenser tubes for about 30 seconds.

Coupled with proper water treatment, these systems virtually eliminate fouling within the chiller and maintain design-approach temperatures.

These systems typically show payback periods of less than two years.

Step 3: Ensure a Leak-free Unit

Manufacturers recommend quarterly tests of compressors for leaks.

Low-pressure chillers, which has been phased out, or have sections of their refrigeration systems that operate at subatmospheric pressure.

Although these chillers are the most common in today’s facilities, it is difficult to create a perfectly sealed machine, and leaks allow air and moisture, commonly referred to as non-condensables, to enter the unit.

Once in the chiller, non-condensables become trapped in the condenser, increasing condensing pressure and compressor-power requirements and reducing efficiency and overall cooling capacity.

Low-pressure chillers have high-efficiency purge units that remove non-condensables to maintain design-condensing pressure and promote efficient operation. One chiller manufacturer estimates that 1 psi of air in a condenser equates to a 3 percent loss in chiller efficiency.

Moisture in a chiller also can create acids that corrode motor windings and bearings and create rust inside the shell.

Small rust particles called fines float in the vessels and get trapped inside heat-exchanger tubes.

Fines on tubes decrease the unit’s heat-transfer effectiveness and overall efficiency. Left unchecked, they can lead to costly tube repairs.

The best way to monitor leaks in a low-pressure chiller is to track purge-unit runtime and the amount of moisture accumulation at the purge unit.

If either of these figures is too high, the unit has leaks. Other indications of air in the system include increased head pressure and condensing temperature.

High-pressure chillers operate at pressures well above atmospheric pressure, and leaks in these types of chillers release potentially hazardous refrigerants into the environment.

Environmental regulations limit the amount of annual refrigerant leaks.

Leaks also results in a lower refrigerant charge and other operational problems, such as lower evaporator pressure, which can cause the compressor to work harder to produce a lower cooling capacity.

For positive-pressure chillers, technicians should monitor the refrigerant charge level and evaporator pressure to detect leaks.

Step 4: Proper Water Treatment

Most chillers use water for heat transfer, so the water must be properly treated to prevent scale, corrosion and biological growth.

A one-time chemical treatment is required for closed-water systems, which are typical of chilled-water systems connected to the chiller evaporator.

Open systems typically are used for condenser-water systems connected to the chiller condenser.

Condenser systems that use sources such as cooling towers require continuous chemical water treatment.

Managers should work with a chemical-treatment vendor familiar with local water supplies and can provide full-service maintenance for all facility water systems.

Scale should not be a problem if the vendor maintains proper chemical treatment of the evaporator and condenser-water systems.

The presence of scale in the condenser or evaporator tubes indicates improperly treated water.

The vendor needs to test water quality every three months and correct the water treatment program, which should aid in cleaning the chiller tubes.

Also, all systems strainers should be cleaned every three months.

Sand filters and side-stream filters for condenser-water systems are very effective at maintaining clean water, if properly maintained.

To determine when cleaning is required, technicians should monitor pressure drop at the filters and refer to manufacturer recommendations on cleaning.

Filters should be cleaned quarterly, regardless of pressure drop.

Maintenance of strainers and filters limits chiller-tube erosion caused by sand or other small particles moving at high velocities.

Erosion and tube pitting decreases overall heat-transfer effectiveness and decreases efficiency.

If uncorrected, these conditions can lead to plugged tubes or catastrophic tube failure.

Technicians should inspect chilled-water and condenser-water piping systems annually for evidence of corrosion and erosion.

Most manufacturers recommend eddy-current inspection of heat-exchanger tubes, including an electromagnetic procedure for evaluating tube-wall thickness, every three-five years.


Step 5: Analyze Oil and Refrigerant

Annual chemical analysis of oil and refrigerant can aid in detect chiller-contamination problems before they become serious.

Testing consists of spectrometric chemical analysis to determine contaminants, including moisture, acids and metals, which hamper performance and efficiency.

Technicians should take an oil sample while the chiller is operating.

The oil should be changed only if indicated by oil analysis.
Technicians also should monitor oil filters for pressure drop and change them during a recommended oil change or if pressure drop is outside of tolerance.

Oil analysis can help detect other chiller problems.

For example, high moisture content in the oil can signal problems with the purge unit, and changes in oil characteristics can signal the development of unacceptable compressor wear.

Managers use refrigerant testing to determine contaminants that might lead to reliability and efficiency problems.

One main contaminant is oil that migrates into the refrigerant.

One chiller manufacturer estimates there is a 2 percent loss in chiller efficiency for every 1 percent oil found in the refrigerant, and it is not uncommon to find 10 percent oil in older chillers’ refrigerant.

Based on this estimate, such contamination can lead to a substantial 20 percent decrease in efficiency. The bottom line — testing can pay large dividends
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مُساهمةموضوع: تقييم كفاءة الشيللرات   الجمعة يوليو 22, 2011 3:36 am

II. MANAGEMENT CONCERNS

Introduction

Every installation has its own mode of operation and style of management.
Cooling
water treatment is but one small area of operations but is so critical that complete base
operations may cease if procedures are not operated properly.

Observations indicate that major difficulties found in Army treatment systems can
be traced to management actions as follows.


LESSONS LEARNED

1. Inadequate Management Support

A serious problem at many Army cooling plants is the apparent lack of attention
from management and/or lack of communications between operating and supervisory
personnel. This inattention is reflected in numerous ways:

(a) Inaccurate direction or lack of water chemistry knowledge.

(b) Plants operating without assigned first-line supervisors.

(c) Lack of evidence that base Public Works Managers show a physical
presence at the plant, or lack face-to-face communications with operating
personnel.

(d) Lack of initial or ongoing training for all levels of managers and operators.

(e) Lack of or inadequate safety program.

(f) Lack of proper maintenance procedures, records, and general order and
appearance of the plant.

Suggested Actions

With O&M budgets under constant scrutiny, support
functions such as cooling plant operations tend to lack a champion unless the assignment of operations is delegated to one specific manager – a manger who should have a good
understanding of the operation and has, or takes, the time to monitor operating performance.

A training schedule should be established to cover all concerned personnel.

2. Lack of Effective Maintenance Programs A ready indication of inadequate maintenance
programs is the lack of documentation of a planned Preventative Maintenance Plan, poor record keeping, a history of downtime, and/or expensive repair costs.

Suggested Actions

Base management should ensure the assignment of single-point responsibility.


Specific duties would include development and maintenance of:

* A Preventative Maintenance Plan.

* Accurate records of tests and repair activities.

* A training schedule for personnel.

* A safety program.

* A schedule for general housekeeping activities to be followed.

3. Inadequate Preparation of Statements of Work for the Acquisition of Cooling
Water Treatment Chemicals And/or Support Services
High costs of operation, increased repair costs, cooling system failures, contract disputes, terminations and, on occasion, litigation can many times be traced to the incomplete
or inadequate preparation of requests for chemicals/services.

The selection of a good chemical vendor is very important to plant operations.

Too often the selection is made on the basis of lowest price per pound of vendor chemicals.

What this does is reward the vendor that has the most water in their chemical
products! The competitive selection of chemicals and vendor should be based on cost
to treat 1,000 gallons of cooling water makeup.

Another factor in buying treatment chemicals is whether to buy chemicals with or
without service.

Most of the companies recognized as cooling water treatment
chemical suppliers do not sell chemicals without service.

Also, the quality of service
provided varies greatly by company and service representative.

Service includes
monthly plant visits, technical assistance and possibly other services.

Conflicts arise
because the company may provide advice that results in unnecessary higher chemical
use since the company has an interest in selling more chemicals. Typically, chemical
products that include service in the purchase price can cost 5 to 20 times more than the
generic chemicals.

Suggested Actions

A standard SOW (Public Works Technical Bulletin (PWTB) 420-49-23, Model
Scope of Work for Procurement of Industrial Water Treatment Chemicals) has been
developed for the acquisition of water treatment chemicals with/without support
services.

4. Lack of Effective Safety Programs

Over 3,000 incidents of employee injuries have occurred over the last three years in cooling and chiller plants.

Common safety problems include simply the lack of a formal safety program, not maintaining the program through regularly scheduled safety meetings, not providing back-up for single-shift operators, and lack of safety facilities such as:

eye wash basins or shower stalls. Last but not least is the lack of proper ladder and rails, and clear, printed warnings on chemicals used in cooling water treatment.


Suggested Actions

Assign a Safety Coordinator for each facility. Schedule regular safety meetings.


Document ANY safety violations. Conduct regular inspections and training in the safe
use of chemicals and equipment. Develop a standing list of protective clothing and
gear for each work location.
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مُساهمةموضوع: تققيم كفاءة تشغيل الشيللرات   السبت يوليو 23, 2011 3:11 am

III. OPERATOR PERFORMANCE

Introduction

The successful operation of cooling water treatment programs starts with a good
understanding of the goal.

The goal is to control deposition, corrosion, and microbiological
growth in the system.

Microbiological growth not only includes biomass that can foul the
system, but pathogenic organisms such as Legionella is known to cause Legionnaire’s
Disease, a pneumonia like illness that accounts for many deaths in the U.S. every year.

The goals can be accomplished through the combined execution of an effective
water treatment chemical program coupled with good mechanical maintenance and sound
operating procedures.

The application of water treatment chemicals alone will not
necessarily be effective to achieve the goals.

Proper execution of a chemical water
treatment program requires accurate routine analysis of the system water conditions.
Consistent monitoring allows for the proper corrective action:

adjustment of chemical feed,
mechanical repairs, and/or operating procedures. The actual control parameters of a
chemical water treatment program is site specific, however the means to achieve the
parameters remain constant: consistent chemical treatment, proper mechanical
maintenance, and sound operating procedures.

This would include proper blowdown
which is fundamental for success.

The key player is the cooling plant Operator and, of course, assigned
Supervisors.

A basic knowledge of cooling mechanics and water chemistry is an
absolute requirement – whether through formal training or On the Job Training (OJT).

Following are examples of operating problems that occur and are often misdiagnosed –
with suggested actions for the correct solution.

LESSONS LEARNED

1. Improper Blowdown Is a Major Cause for Scale Formation and Corrosion
Scale and corrosion can result even when chemicals are applied at the desired
treatment levels if there is improper blowdown.

When blowdown is excessive, scale
forming minerals and suspended solids are removed making the water more corrosive.

Excessive blowdown also removes the treatment chemicals thereby providing less
corrosion protection and also increasing chemical costs.

If blowdown is inadequate,
scale forming minerals build up in the system to the point that treatment chemicals
cannot overcome the tendency to form scale deposits.

In a number of cases, blowdown has been treated as an unrelated procedure to

the chemical treatment program, rather than part of an overall treatment plan.

Cycles
of concentration (COC) determines the water chemistry without chemical treatment.

COC is the number of times the constituents in the raw makeup water is concentrated
in a cooling tower as water is evaporated.

COC is controlled by blowdown and is
measured by the amount of total dissolved solids (TDS) or conductivity.

Exceeding the
recommended COC for your cooling tower system due to insufficient blowdown can
lead to scale even when chemical treatment levels are maintained.

Control Range: 3,000 - 4,500 ppm TDS for this example.

Above 4,500 ppm
risks scaling.

Below 3,000 ppm is allows for more corrosive conditions and is wasteful
of water and chemical treatment.

Suggested Actions

Use automatic blowdown to control TDS wherever practical.

This is
achieved with an automated microprocessor conductivity blowdown controller.

It is
better to control blowdown continuously or in small frequent increments rather than
infrequent long increments.

This avoids wide swings in the TDS level as well as
chemical levels.

Small cooling towers frequently employ a constant or regular blowdown to drain.
This can be accomplished by throttling a blowdown valve.

Another method is to use a
timer-solenoid valve combination to achieve regular blowdown.

It can also come from a
overflow piping in the cooling tower sump.

However, these methods are not very
efficient with variable load demands.

The better method is the conductivity based
controller described in the previous paragraph.

Manual blowdown requires too much effort to be effective and is not recommended.

2. Inadequate Control of Microbiological Problems and Suspended Solids
Microbiological growth due to bacteria, fungus, and algae is a problem for Army
cooling water systems.

Their presence can increase operating costs when biomass
insulates heat transfer surfaces.

Biomass can also restrict water flow by blocking water
passages.

Certain bacteria like legionella are pathogenic and need to be controlled.

Suspended solids (SS) are things like dirt, silt, and clay.

SS are undissolved as
opposed to natural contaminants like hardness and alkalinity that are present as
dissolved solids.

Some SS originate from the system itself when corrosion is not
controlled i.e. iron oxide.

Heavy accumulation of SS make it more difficult for
microbiocides to disinfect a cooling tower or closed chilled loop system much the same
as a dirty wound on a person can lead to infection even though a disinfectant is
applied.

Anaerobic bacteria prefer to exist underneath deposits of SS, scale, and even
other bio-mass.

Certain bacteria in themselves are corrosive with their by-products
causing a microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).

MIC has been known to cause
localized tube and pipe failures.

Suggested Actions

Maintain a consistent microbiocide program to maintain general bacterial counts
to less than 10,000 colonies/ml. MIC type bacteria like sulfate reducers should be
maintained as non-detectable.

There are commercially available test kits used for
biological monitoring.

There should be no visible signs of algae or other biomass in the
cooling tower.

The microbiocide program can include continuous application of an
oxidizing biocide like chlorine or bromine.

Another practice is to slug feed a oxidizing
or non-oxidizing biocide on a periodic basis.

The frequency will depend bacterial levels
and the presence of visible biomass.

The dosage of a non-oxidizing biocide is limited by the EPA. It is recommended
to apply only the amount of biocide needed.

Excessive application is not only
expensive, but environmentally objectionable.

To get maximum effectiveness from any
biocide, maintain good housekeeping practices.

Cooling tower systems and closed
loop systems should be clean from SS as much as possible.

Filtration equipment is
useful for this purpose.

Another practice is to physically remove SS from low flow
areas like cooling tower sumps.

Low flow areas in piping systems often require
flushing to remove SS.

Clean systems are easier to disinfect than dirty ones and will
require less microbiocide treatment to control bacteria, fungus, and algae.

3. Cooling Tower Film-fill Is Prone to Fouling

New cooling towers are often specified with the high efficiency film fill instead of
the splash fill because they provide more cooling with less volume as water passages
are tightly packed together.

The problem is that they are much more prone to fouling
with suspended solids (SS) and bio-mass than the splash fill.

SS are things like dirt,
silt, and clay.

SS are undissolved as opposed to natural contaminants like hardness
and alkalinity that are present as dissolved solids.

Some SS originate from the system
itself when corrosion is not controlled i.e. iron oxide.

Clay type SS are especially
problematic. Some makeup waters from rivers and streams can contain high clay
content.

Fouled fill results in a loss of cooling capacity.

Suggested Actions

If possible, specify into the architectural & engineering design, clog resistant film
fill over the high efficiency film fill.

The trade off in efficiency is marginal and the
maintenance is easier.

From an operational perspective, the following is
recommended:

4. Maintain good housekeeping practices to remove suspended solids (SS)
as much as possible.

Filtration equipment is useful for this purpose.

Another practice
is to physically remove SS from low flow areas like cooling tower sumps.

Low flow
areas in piping systems often require flushing to remove SS.

5. Maintain a consistent microbiocide program to maintain general bacterial
counts to less than 10,000 colonies/ml.

MIC type bacteria like sulfate reducers should
be maintained as non-detectable.

There are commercially available test kits used for
biological monitoring.

There should be no visible signs of algae or other biomass in the
cooling tower.

The microbiocide program can include continuous applicationجحاث of an
oxidizing biocide like chlorine or bromine.

Another practice is to slug feed a oxidizing
or non-oxidizing biocide on a periodic basis.

The frequency will depend bacterial levels
and the presence of visible biomass.

6. Remedial actions to clean fouled fill can include alternate wet and dry exposure coupled with mechanical cleaning.

4. Enhanced Chiller Tubes Are More Difficult to Protect Against Corrosion
Advancement in chiller design has produced the enhanced and super enhanced
copper chiller tube.

32 The water side is grooved with rifling which increases the surface
area for superior heat exchange.

The downside is that this rifling creates small ridges
that can entrap suspended solids and lead to tube failures from localized corrosion.

Suggested Actions

Inform your water treatment service company (WTSC) that you have the
enhanced copper chiller tubes and that you require extra protection against corrosion
of copper.

The WTSC should maintain higher levels of copper corrosion inhibitors.

From an operational standpoint, limit accumulation of suspended solids.

Maintain a consistent and effective microbiological program to control bacteria, fungus,
and algae.

Do not let water sit idle in equipment for long periods of time. Idle
equipment should have water recirculated regularly - up to 2-3 times per week - to
keep suspended solids from settling between the rifled portions of the enhanced tubing.

5. New Galvanized Cooling Towers Are Prone to White Rust
New cooling towers are often specified with galvanized sumps and other
structural pieces that are prone to premature corrosion of the galvanizing.

This is due
to changes in the galvanizing process and the high pH conditions seen with today’s
cleaning formulations and maintenance water treatment programs.

When improperly
conditioned, cooling tower sumps less than one year old can resemble a ten year old
piece of equipment with impending failure eminent.

The result is downtime, repair
and/or replacement of the galvanized sump.

Suggested Actions

The process needs to start with the initial cleaning and chemical passivation of
the new cooling tower.

The water treatment service company needs to be aware of the
materials of constructions and needs to provide a cleaning formulation and procedure
to the mechanical contractor on the job, that will not promote white rust.

High pH (over
8.0) should be avoided during this procedure.

The maintenance water treatment
program must also be specific for the prevention of white rust.

This is achieved either
by maintain a pH less than 8.0 or by passivating with high polyphosphate levels for 5-6
days and maintaining a polyphosphate residual of 3-5 ppm as PO thereafter. Obtain4

an acknowledgment from both the water treatment service company and the
mechanical contractor that chemicals and procedures are proper for preventing white
rust.

Remedial actions where white rust has already formed require physical removal
of the white rust followed by either re-galvanizing metal surfaces or applying special
epoxy resins.

This requires for the cooling tower to be taken off-line.

6. Lack of Understanding of Chemical Feed Operations Results in Failures
Improper application of chemical treatment can result in failure to control scale,
corrosion, and microbiological growth.

Many mistakes are due to the lack of
understanding of the operation of chemical feed equipment and it’s relationship to
blowdown.

Suggested Actions

Operators should learn the principles of operation for their chemical control &
feed equipment and the fallibilities.

These include:
a. Feed & bleed type controllers feed inhibitor whenever the bleed circuit is
active due to high conductivity.

Excessive leaks can cause the bleed
circuit never to trip and therefore no chemical feed occurs.

b. Conductivity controllers with water meter initiated chemical inhibitor feed
are independent of blowdown. However blowdown determines the cycles
of concentration and therefore the resulting chemical level.

c. Cycle-type timer feed feeds chemical treatment as a function of time and
therefore is also independent of blowdown.

However blowdown
determines the cycles of concentration and therefore the resulting
chemical level.

Furthermore this type of chemical inhibitor feed requires
adjustment relative to cooling load unlike the water meter initiated feed.

d. Biocide timers and pumps are generally used to feed biocides on a
weekly / monthly calendar basis.

This is comparable to a water sprinkler
controller for a garden or lawn.

Frequency of dosing is dependent on
control of microbiological population.

Simply dosing a biocide once or
twice a week will not insure microbiological control.

Some oxidizing type biocides are fed continuously.

e. Conductivity probes need to be kept clean for accurate readings.

f. Blowdown piping needs to be kept clean.

g. Chemical pumps need to be constantly primed.

Tubing needs to be kept
in good condition. Cracks in suction tubing can cause pumps to lose prime.

7. Inadequate Sampling and Testing Procedures Result in Improper Chemical Treatment

We have come a long way from the old days!!!
Inaccurate gathering and analysis of water samples can result in losing control
of the treatment program.

This can lead to a higher cost of chemical treatment,
misapplication of treatment, reduced efficiency, and even chiller failure.
Chemical test results are only as accurate as the sample collected.

Therefore
the sample collected must be truly representative of the system conditions.

A poor
sample will yield results that call for unwarranted or insufficient adjustments to the
program.

Suggested Actions

Specific rules apply to good sampling and test procedures:

Sample Point

Cooling tower water and closed chilled water samples need to be representative of the system.

Stagnant piping legs will not give a representative
sample of general water chemistry and instead reflect the isolated area.

Sampling Technique


Sample lines should be flushed thoroughly to minimize contaminants from
stagnant water in the lines.

Sample containers should be clean prior to taking a
sample.

Containers should be dedicated for sample type i.e. cooling tower, closed
chilled water, makeup water, etc .

Heavy duty, high temperature, polypropylene, wide
mouth bottles are recommended over glass
Tests for trace metals like iron and copper require special preparation.
The sample needs to be preserved with acid to bring the pH down to 2.0 or less.

This
is necessary to prevent the trace amount of metal from being absorbed into the walls of
the container.

Interval Between Sample Collection and Analysis
For microbiological testing, it can be critical that the interval between
sample collection and analysis be as short as possible.

For most mineral testing i.e.
dissolved solids, calcium, alkalinity, etc., the time interval is not an issue.

General Laboratory Technique
Laboratory glassware and testing vials should be clean when starting to
run tests. Rinse glassware and test equipment thoroughly between different tests and
different samples to avoid cross contamination.

This is particularly important when
measuring conductivity of makeup water samples which are relatively pure compared to
cooling tower water samples.

Problematic Testing
The problems that often rise in cooling water testing is the lack of
consistency in following correct procedures and /or interpreting results.

The following
are some examples:

Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids Testing of Cooling Water
Samples
Blowdown is generally controlled as a function of total dissolved solids
(TDS) which is calculated from conductivity measurements. Excessive blowdown
causes TDS to be too low resulting in waste of energy, water, and chemical treatment.

Insufficient blowdown results in excessive TDS and risks the deposition of scale on
cooling tubes and carryover of cooling water into the steam.

The key in obtaining an accurate reading is to have a conductivity meter
that is properly calibrated for the range that is being tested.

One would not want to
use a 300 micromhos calibration standard for a reading that is expected to be
measured in the thousands micromhos range or visa versa.

Some conductivity meters
have “built in” calibration, but these must always be verified against an external
standard.

Comparing one calibration standard against another independently prepared

standard, gives some idea if the standards are in agreement and therefore correctly
prepared.

Polymer/Phosphonate Testing

Many cooling water treatment programs use all organic / phosphonate
programs.

Specific test procedures are available to test for these, however it is
recommended to send samples to an outside lab for analysis to verify results obtained
at the plant.

8. Poor Records Cause Ineffective Cooling Operations
Well documented logs of water testing results are necessary to indicate the
current status and trends of chemical treatment and general cooling water operations.

Records are particularly valuable for preventing cooling failures or determining the
cause of failures that do occur.

Well maintained records can predict the condition of
the chiller and cooling tower before inspections are performed.

Suggested Actions

Maintain log records that are organized and easy to read or they are not
useable.

Many operations use computer generated spreadsheets and databases that
they create on their own or use from their water treatment service company.

Records
worth keeping can include:

Makeup Water water meter readings, hardness, conductivity, silica Cooling Tower pH, calcium hardness, alkalinity, Water chloride, silica, polymer, conductivity, inhibitor level, bacterial levels, Closed Chilled pH, conductivity, iron, hardness, Water inhibitor levels, bacterial levels

Chemical dosages, chemical pump settings Treatment (general)
Records should be reviewed by supervisory personnel to see if that all parameters are within specified control limits.

If they are consistently out of the control range, then corrective action is required.

Test results should be periodically verified by an independent testing laboratory
to make sure that accuracy is being achieved.

9. Inspections Are Invaluable for Cooling Operations

Chiller and cooling tower

the effectiveness of the water treatment program.

Proper chemical treatment application and record keeping can allow one to predict the condition of the equipment, however the inspection documents the condition.

Proper documentation allows for comparison to previous inspections to see if the condition of the equipment has changed for the better or worse. Photos and videos should be used wherever practical.

Suggested Actions

Obtain documents from the previous inspection if applicable, to serve as a
reference for the present condition of the equipment.

Inspect the watersides of the chiller and condenser tube bundles.

In many
cases the view will be limited.

Fiber optics video inspection equipment is useful for this
purpose. Note the presence or absence of deposits.

If present, note the thickness of
the deposit and obtain a sample for laboratory analysis.

Good control of chemical
treatment and blowdown will prevent deposits from forming.

Inspect the watersides for corrosion and microbiological control effectiveness.
The metal should not show any pitting due to corrosion attack.

The metal should not
show any localized dark or green discoloration which is an indicator of corrosion.
There should not be any biomass present.

Inspect the sump of the cooling tower.

There should be no significant
accumulation of dirt/silt/sand or microbiological growth which indicates good control of
suspended solids and microbiological concerns.
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