مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثالأعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول
تنظيف وتطهير وغسيل واعادة تاهيل الخزانات


معمل تكنولاب البهاء جروب
 للتحاليل الكيميائية والطبية
والتشخيص بالنظائر المشعة
 للمخدرات والهرمونات والسموم
 وتحاليل المياه

مجموعة
تكنولاب البهاء جروب
لتصميم محطات الصرف الصناعى والصحى
لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعى والصحى
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
دراسات علمية كيميائية



معالجة الغلايات وانظمة البخار المكثف
معالجة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
معالجة الشيللرات
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
اسنشاريين
كيميائيين/طبيين/بكترولوجيين
عقيد دكتور
بهاء بدر الدين محمود
رئيس مجلس الادارة
استشاريون متخصصون فى مجال تحاليل وتنقية ومعالجة المياه
متخصصون فى تصنيع وتصميم كيماويات
معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى
حسب كل مشكلة كل على حدة
تصنيع وتحضير كيماويات معالجة المياه الصناعية
مؤتمرات/اجتماعات/محاضرات/فريق عمل متميز
صور من وحدات معالجة المياه


technolab el-bahaa group
TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP
EGYPT
FOR
WATER
TREATMENT/PURIFICATION/ANALYSIS
CONSULTANTS
CHEMIST/PHYSICS/MICROBIOLIGIST
 
INDUSTRIAL WATER
WASTE WATER
DRINKING WATER
TANKS CLEANING
 
CHAIRMAN
COLONEL.DR
BAHAA BADR EL-DIN
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
0174041455

 

 

 

تصميم وانشاء محطات صرف صناعى/waste water treatment plant design

technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are a consultants in water treatment with our chemicals as:-
Boiler water treatment chemicals
Condensated steam treatment chemicals
Oxygen scavenger treatment chemicals
Ph-adjustment treatment chemicals
Antiscale treatment chemicals
Anticorrosion treatment chemicals
Open cooling tower treatment chemicals
Chillers treatment chemicals
Waste water treatment chemicals
Drinking water purification chemicals
Swimming pool treatment chemicals
Fuel oil improver(mazote/solar/benzene)
technolab el-bahaa group
egypt
We are consultants in extraction ,analysis and trading the raw materials of mines as:-
Rock phosphate
32%-30%-28%-25%
Kaolin
Quartez-silica
Talcum
Feldspae(potash-sodumic)
Silica sand
Silica fume
Iron oxid ore
Manganese oxid
Cement(42.5%-32.5%)
Ferro manganese
Ferro manganese high carbon

 

water treatment unit design


 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية لتوريد وتركيب وصيانة الغلايات وملحقاتها
solo agent for turkish and chinese companies for boiler production/manufacture/maintance

 

وكلاء لشركات تركية وصينية واوروبية لتصنيع وتركيب وصيانة ابراج التبريد المفتوحة

 

تصميم وتوريد وتركيب الشيللرات
design/production/maintance
chillers
ابراج التبريد المفتوحة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
المكتب الاستشارى العلمى
قطاع توريد خطوط انتاج المصانع
 
نحن طريقك لاختيار افضل خطوط الانتاج لمصنعكم
سابقة خبرتنا فى اختيار خطوط الانتاج لعملاؤنا
 
1)خطوط انتاج العصائر الطبيعية والمحفوظة والمربات
2)خطوط انتاج الزيوت الطبيعية والمحفوظة
3)خطوط انتاج اللبن الطبيعى والمحفوظ والمبستر والمجفف والبودرة
4)خطوط تعليب وتغليف الفاكهة والخضروات
5)خطوط انتاج المواسير البلاستيك والبى فى سى والبولى ايثيلين
6)خطوط انتاج التراى كالسيوم فوسفات والحبر الاسود
7)خطوط انتاج الاسفلت بانواعه
Coolمحطات معالجة الصرف الصناعى والصحى بالطرق البيولوجية والكيميائية
9)محطات معالجة وتنقية مياه الشرب
10)محطات ازالة ملوحة البحار لاستخدامها فى الشرب والرى
11)الغلايات وخطوط انتاج البخار الساخن المكثف
12)الشيللرات وابراج التبريد المفتوحة وخطوط انتاج البخار البارد المكثف
 
للاستعلام
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب
0117156569
0129834104
0163793775
 
القاهرة-شارع صلاح سالم-عمارات العبور-عمارة 17 ب
فلا تر رملية/كربونية/زلطيه/حديدية

وحدات سوفتنر لازالة عسر المياه

مواصفات مياه الشرب
Drinking water
acceptable
values

50

colour

acceptable

Taste

nil

Odour

6.5-9.2

ph

 

1 mg/dl

pb

5 mg/dl

as

50 mg/dl

cn

10 mg/dl

cd

0-100mg/dl

hg

8 mg/dl

f

45 mg/dl

N02

1 mg/dl

Fe

5 mg/dl

Mn

5.1 mg/dl

Cu

200 mg/dl

Ca

150 mg/dl

Mg

600 mg/dl

Cl

400 mg/dl

S04

200 mg/dl

Phenol

15 mg/dl

zn

 

 

الحدود المسموح به
ا لملوثات الصرف الصناعى
 بعد المعالجة
Acceptable
values
treated wate water
7-9.5

ph

25-37 c

Temp

40 mg/dl

Suspended solid

35 mg/dl

bod

3 mg/dl

Oil & grase

0.1 mg/dl

hg

0.02 mg/dl

cd

0.1 mg/dl

cn

0.5mg/dl

phenol

1.5 ds/m

conductivity

200 mg/dl

na

120 mg/dl

ca

56 mg/dl

mg

30 mg/dl

k

200 mg/dl

cl

150 mg/dl

S02

0.75 mg/dl

Fe

0.2 mg/dl

Zn

0.5 mg/dl

Cu

0.03 mg/dl

Ni

0.09 mg/dl

Cr

0.53 mg/dl

لb

0.15 mg/dl

pb

 





pipe flocculator+daf
plug flow flocculator
lamella settels

محطات تحلية مياه البحر بطريقة التقطير الومضى على مراحل
MSF+3.jpg (image)
محطات التقطير الومضى لتحلية مياه البحر2[MSF+3.jpg]
some of types of tanks we services
انواع الخزانات التى يتم تنظيفها
ASME Specification Tanks
Fuel Tanks
Storage Tanks
Custom Tanks
Plastic Tanks
Tank Cleaning Equipment
Double Wall Tanks
Septic Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Stainless Steel Tanks
Custom / Septic
مراحل المعالجة الاولية والثانوية والمتقدمة للصرف الصناعى

صور مختلفة
من وحدات وخزانات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
 التى تم تصميمها وتركيبها من قبل المجموعة

صور
 من خزانات الترسيب الكيميائى والفيزيائى
 لوحدات معالجة الصرف الصناعى
المصممة من قبل المحموعة



technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group

technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group


technolab el-bahaa group




مياه رادياتير اخضر اللون
بريستول تو ايه
انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه - دمياط الجديدة
مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب

اسطمبات عبوات منتجات شركة بريستول تو ايه-دمياط الجديدة

مياه رادياتير خضراء فوسفورية

من انتاج شركة بريستول تو ايه 

بترخيص من مجموعة تكنولاب البهاء جروب


زيت فرامل وباكم

DOT3



شاطر | 
 

 DAF Dissolved Air Flotation Systems/ وحدة التطويف بالهواء المذاب

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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عدد المساهمات : 3514
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر

مُساهمةموضوع: DAF Dissolved Air Flotation Systems/ وحدة التطويف بالهواء المذاب   الأربعاء فبراير 22, 2012 8:59 am

DAF
Dissolved Air Flotation Systems

BY

GENERAL.DR

BAHAA BADR

TECHNOLAB EL-BAHAA GROUP

The DAF Series Dissolved Air Flotation systems are designed to
remove petroleum products, FOG, TSS, BOD, COD and other
contaminants in a wide variety of industries & applications.

Dissolved Air
Flotation systems are an extremely versatile
design allowing high loads of a very wide variety
of contaminants to be removed from your
wastestream.

DAF is considered to be the best,
most cost-effective device for separating FOG
and solids.

The DAF process consists of super saturation of
effluent discharge water with air.

The saturated
water stream is then redirected and mixed with
the wastestream prior to entering the inlet.

As pressure is removed from the saturated
stream millions of microscopic bubbles form and
attach themselves to the contaminants in the
wastestream, thereby changing their bouyancy
and floating them to the water surface where
they can be skimmed from the water.

Our unique, compact, small footprinted
“Dinky DAF” design is offered for small flows
and tight spaces.

Chemical pretreatment can be
provided where required for all DAFs.

Our DAF systems can be used for removal of
oils, fuels, emulsfied products, FOG, BOD,
suspended solids, COD, vegetable matter,
vegetable oils, animal processing waste, river
water for drinking or plant use, bilge water,
pretreatment prior to bio-reactor systems and
many many other types of applications.

The
DAF is a hardy piece of equipment and can
accommodate many wastes.

Standard Features:
♦ A36 or 304 or 316 SS construction
♦ Adjustable water weir
♦ Integral float reservoir
♦ Influent diffuser
♦ Effluent chamber
♦ Recycle saturation system
♦ NPT/flanged fittings
♦ Surface drag skimmer
♦ V-hopper Bottom, sludge auger
♦ Lifting lugs
♦ Nema 4 controls
Typical applications:
♦ Groundwater remediation
♦ Tank truck tank wash
♦ Refinery wastestream
♦ Biodiesel process water
♦ Drinking water pretreatment
♦ Pet food plant process water
♦ Beef, fish, foul, pork processing
♦ Rendering plant wastewater
♦ Food processing plant water
♦ Algae removal
♦ Industrial process water
♦ Bilge water treatment
♦ Bakery wastewater
♦ Military wash racks
♦ Steel mills

The DAF systems can be provided with
many options to create a complete, custom
system design to fit your application and
particular needs.

Customization of the tank is offered to
further tailor the design to your needs.

Chemical Pretreatment:

Chemical pretreatment typically increases
DAF performance.


pretreatment systems to coagulate
flocculate, precipitate, oxidize, break
emulsions and/or adjust pH before or after
the DAF.

DAF Options Descriptions

Influent Feed System Air operated, diaphragm
pump with air controls or progressive cavity pump, sump
level switches & Nema 4 control panel, base mounted,
115/230/460V power offered. Electric diaphragm pumps
available.

Effluent Pumpout Centrifugal pump with level
switches & Nema 4 control panel, base mounted,
115/230/460V power offered.

OS Effluent chamber must be
expanded to accommodate pumpout or provision of an
external pumpout tank.

Sludge Pumpout System Air operated, diaphragm
pump with air controls & Nema 4 control panel, auto on/off
timer, base mounted, 115V/1ph/60Hz power req'd.

Progressive cavity pump system also available. 1 - 100
GPM.

Float Pumpout System Air operated, diaphragm
pump with air controls, level switches & Nema 4 control
panel, base mounted, 115V/1ph/60Hz power req'd.

Electric
gear or progressive cavity pump systems available. 1 - 100
GPM (larger if required)

Sludge Auger Dinky DAF V-hopper can be provided
with a sludge auger.

System consists of stainless steel
shafts with coated steel screw auger(s) driven by a slow
speed gear motor drive assembly.

The auger extends the
full length of the solids hopper and conveys solids to the
sludge outlet.

A Nema 4 on/off control box is provided,
power required: 230 or 460V/3ph/60Hz.

Cover DAF tank can be provided with a vapor retaining
cover.

Freeze Protection Immersion heaters mounted
through tank wall. Each heater has an independent
thermocouple well, 0-100 deg.

F thermostat and Nema 1
(or optional Nema 4) housing. 230/460V/3ph/60Hz power
req'd.

Oil Sight Glass Two automatic, brass valves with
tempered sight glass and protection rods mounted in oil
reservoir.

If glass is broken check ball stops outflow from
reservoir.

External Sight / Level Glass An externally
mounted clear PVC sight tube is provided with multi-point
level switch for indication or pump control of oil or water.

Elevation Stand Epoxy coated steel stand or legs to
elevate tank to desired level.

Standard deck height is 30".
Full platforms & walkways with ladders or stairways can be
designed where required or desired.

Alternate Tank Construction Standard carbon
steel construction can be changed to 304 or 316 stainless
steel.

External Storage/Feed Tanks A wide variety of
tank volumes can be supplied for your water, product and
sludge holding needs.

Flat bottom and cone bottom
designs constructed in polyethylene, fiberglass, steel &
stainless steel can be provided.

Effluent Filter Systems Solids filter systems can be
provided to remove filterable solids from the separator
effluent.

AQAM Filter Systems AQAM (Alkyl Quaternary
Ammonium Montmorillonite) filter systems can be provided
to remove trace hydrocarbons, sheens, DNAPLs, slightly
soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and high molecular
weight organics from the separator effluent.
AQAM can also be used to protect and
increase GAC lifespan.

Carbon Filtration Systems (GAC) GAC carbon
filters can be provided to remove contaminants after the
separator.

Emulsion Cracking Systems Emulsion cracking
systems can be provided to remove oil-in-water emulsions
prior to the separator.

pH Adjustment Systems pH adjustment systems
can be provided to maintain pH levels prior to or after the
separator.

Chemical Pretreatment Systems Chemical
pretreatment system can be provided to coagulate,
flocculate, precipitate, oxidize, break emulsions and/or
adjust pH before or after the DAF


System Containerization DAF systems with any
options can be installed in a 20 or 40’ shipping container(s)
to simplify system provision and field implementation.

System would include the complete mounting, piping and

wiring of the system in one or more container as required
by the project.

Trailer Mounting OS separators can be mounted on a
trailer for system mobilization.

Trailer design generally
includes corner leveling jacks, bubble levels, walkway,
toolbox, electric or hydraulic brakes, piping and wiring of
options.

Field Skid Mounting DAF systems can be mounted
to a mobile skid with leveling for quick field mobilization.

Skid Mounted System DAFs can be combined with
our other treatment equipment and options into a fully
integrated, custom designed system completely mounted,
plumbed and wired to a system skid.

To simplify your need
to do the wiring and plumbing on site, reducing your time
frames and on site costs, we design around your
requirements.

Vent Scrubber Separator vapors can be extracted and
scrubbed prior to discharge to atmosphere to remove VOC
content.

Level Sensors Level sensors can be provided to
detect water and oil/fuels.

One or more sensor points can
be provided to perform various functions such as high level,
low level, pump on/off based on liquid levels and level
detection for DCS controls or other functions based on your
needs.

Class 1 Div 1 & 2 Systems can be designed for use in
a class 1 div 1 or 2 environment. Controls, components and
wiring are changed to meet the needs of these
environments. Intrinsically safe relays are also used for
level sensors.

DAF Series Dissolved Air Flotation

Engineering Specification

DAF12 through DAF600

EQUIPMENT DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION

Performance

The Pan America Environmental DAF Series systems are designed
to remove fats, oils & greases (FOG) and suspended solids.
Clarification rates as high as 97% can be achieved using the DAF
systems.

A percentage of the clean effluent is recycled and super-saturated
with air, mixed with the wastewater influent and injected into the
DAF separation chamber.

The dissolved air comes out of solution,
producing millions of microscopic bubbles. These bubbles attach to
solids and float them to the surface where they are skimmed and
removed from the tank.

SECTION 1.0 EQUIPMENT

The DAF Dissolved Air Flotation system will be designed and
fabricated per the following specifications.

The tank shall be a
rectangular design with features as described.

1.01 Float/Separation Chamber

The separation chamber provides a velocity decreasing horizontal
separation surface area that minimizes turbulence and maximizes
flow and solids throughput.

The mixed wastewater enters this
chamber where separation and flotation occur.

The Separation chamber includes the float storage chamber, float
baffle, water baffle with adjustable water weir, settleable sludge
hopper, surface float skimmer, clean water effluent chamber and
the skim ramp.

1.02 Float Storage Chamber

As the surface float skimmer continuously skims float from the water
surface it conveys float up the skim ramp and deposits it in the float
storage chamber which is provided to allow temporary float storage.

The chamber has sloped sides to allow solids to slide to the bottom
sludge outlets.

1.03 Effluent Chamber

The waste flow and float run into the float baffle at the effluent end
of the tank. The float is contained while the water is directed under
the baffle and over the adjustable 304 stainless steel weir plate. The
clean water accumulates in this chamber and is discharged.

1.04 Sludge Hopper

A sludge hopper is located under the separation chamber to provide
temporary storage of any settleable solids.

A sludge auger is
provided to convey sludge to the sludge outlet (auger provided as
standard feature with DAF60 and larger).

1.05 Sludge Auger System

(standard feature on DAF-60 & larger)

The solids hopper is provided with a rotating, screw type sludge
auger.

The auger consists of stainless steel shafts with coated steel
screw auger driven by a slow speed gear motor drive assembly.

The auger extends the full length of the solids hopper and conveys
solids to the sludge outlet.

Power required: 230/460V/3ph/60Hz.

Oil Monitor an oil detection system can be provided to
monitor effluent oil content and provide various actions
based on the oil alarm setpoint.

Actions might include:

audible/visual alarm, redirection of influent or effluent via
actuated valve, shutdown of influent pump or your custom
action.

1.06 Surface Float Skimmer

A mechanical surface drag skimmer assembly is provided to sweep
the floating solids (float) from the effluent end of the separation
chamber toward the influent end.

The skimmer consists of 304

stainless skimmer flights and neoprene or Buna-N wiper blades,
carbon steel flight chain, sprockets and chain guides, variable
speed drive, sprocket shafts, bearings and chain adjustment
bearing frames.

The flights will be bolted to two roller chains
spanning the width of the tank and will be designed to wipe the tank
sides and float ramp.

UHMWPE flight wear bars are provided to
reduce tank and flight wear.

1.07 Air Saturation System

The DAF is provided with an air saturation system that is designed
to direct a portion of the water from the effluent end of the tank,
super-saturate the water with air and then mix this solution with
incoming wastewater facilitating intimate mixing of both flows.

Recycle saturation pump and schedule 80 PVC piping are mounted
on DAF tank with a bypass line to the effluent chamber.

1.08 Recycle Pump

A high head, coated cast iron centrifugal, 100 psi recycle pump
mounted to the DAF tank is included to provide air saturated water
under pressure to the air/wastewater mixing inlet prior to entering
the separation chamber.

A Nema 4 control panel is provided
mounted to the DAF tank.

Power required: 230/460V/3ph/60Hz. The
recycle pump draws ambient air into the pump and saturates the
water with this air under high pressure.

No external air source is
required. A fine air-metering valve with rotometer are provided to
control and measure the air flow into the recycle pump.

A discharge
control valve and suction control valve are provided to facilitate
adjustment and operation of the air saturation process.

Discharge
and suction pressure gauges are provided. Pump on/off operation is
based on an on/off switch in the control panel.

If another on/off logic
is required based on other processes within the installation site this
can be integrated on an optional basis (contact PAE for quotation).
Once adjusted the recycle system can be turned off and on at will
without losing settings and saturation process is virtually
instantaneous upon startup.

1.09 Influent Mixing Chamber

The saturated flow mixes with the wastewater flow at the DAF
influent via a mixing chamber.

Chamber to be constructed of same
material as DAF tank.

1.10 Controls

A Nema 4 control panel with pump and auger control switches,
lights, starters, variable speed motor control for flight skimmer and
power disconnect are provided mounted and wired to the DAF tank
for convenient operation. 230/460V/3 ph/60Hz power required.

Control of any options can be integrated into this panel for
centralized control by the factory prior to shipping.

SECTION 2.0 MATERIALS OF
CONSTRUCTION

2.01 Steel Construction

Tank shell, baffles and internal structural members shall be
constructed of A-36 carbon steel.

Weld joints are to be double
welded and dye penetrant tested.

2.02 Surface Preparation

Interior surfaces shall be prepared to an SSPC-SP10 near white
metal blast. Exterior surfaces shall be prepared to an SSPC-SP6
commercial blast.

2.03 Coatings

Interior coating to be a self-priming coal tar epoxy (14-16 mils dft).
Exterior coating shall be primer coat followed by industrial
polyurethane enamel coat (6 mils DFT)

. Finish color is Green.

2.04 Internal Piping

Internal piping shall be ASTM A53 black steel.

2.05 Hardware

All wetted hardware to be ANSI, 316 stainless steel. All non-wetted
hardware to be zinc plated.

2.06 I.O.M. Manuals

Two copies of the Installation, Operation and Maintenance manuals
will be provided.


Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF)

Operational Theory

Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) is the process of

removing suspended solids, oils and other contaminants via the use
of air bubble flotation.

Air is dissolved into water, mixed with the
wastestream and released from solution while in intimate contact
with the contaminants.

Air bubbles form, attach to the solids,
increase their buoyancy and float the solids to the water's surface.

A
percentage of the clean effluent is recycled and super-saturated
with air, mixed with the wastewater influent and injected into the
DAF separation chamber.

The dissolved air comes out of solution, producing millions of
microscopic bubbles.

These bubbles attach to the solids and float
them to the surface where they are mechanically skimmed and
removed from the tank.

dissolved
air flotation systems are designed to remove fats, oils & grease
(FOG), suspended solids, food/animal production/processing
wastes, industrial wastes, hydrocarbon oils/emulsions and many
other contaminants.

Clarification rates as high as 97% or more can
be achieved using our dissolved air flotation systems. Chemical pretreatment
can often help to improve the performance of contaminant
removal.

Conventional DAF saturation design uses a recycle pump
combined with a saturation vessel and air compressor to dissolve
air into the water.

This type of system, while effective, is expensive,
labor intensive and can destabilize its point of equilibrium, creating
burps due to incorrect, loss or creeping of EQ set-point in the
saturation vessel.

This design is slow to recover and can upset the
flotation process in the DAF. Air transfer efficiency is approximately
9% @ 80% entrainment.

This style of operation can increase
chemical use, labor costs, downtime, effluent loadings, production
schedules and other detrimental domino effects due to EQ loss.

Pan America's DAF design incorporates today's "state of the art"
technology in DAF design.

This design simplifies the DAF process, requires
less startup time, less capital cost, instrumentation, labor and maintenance.

The design is process friendly, providing virtually instant saturation upon
system startup without equalization and complex startup
procedures.

Once the system is adjusted the system can be
shutdown and started up again without any readjustment or
equalization.

Higher air transfer efficiencies are also realized due to
higher saturation pressures with 12% @ 93% entrainment.


both styles of DAF design depending on
application and customer preferences.
DAF sizing takes into consideration many criteria for sizing:

Flow rate, Water temperature, Waste characteristics, Chemical pretreatment,
Solids loading (LBS/HR/Ft2) , Hydraulic loading
(GPM/FT2), Air to solids ratio (LBS of air/LBS of Solids).

DAFs are designed on the basis of the peak flow rate expected.

The
flow can range from 1 to 5 gallons per minute per square foot of
surface area (GPM/Ft2).

Bench testing of waste stream samples is
usually the preferred starting point when sizing equipment and
determining proper chemical processes prior to the DAF.

The
chemical pretreatment will assist and improve the DAF separation
process.


Chemical Pretreatment often improves DAF solids
removal efficiencies.

The use of chemical flocculants with DAF is
based on system efficiency, application (use of DAF) and cost.
Commonly used chemicals include trivalent metallic salts of iron,
such as FeCI2 or FeSO4 or aluminum, such as AISO4.

Organic and
inorganic polymers (cationic or anionic) are often used to enhance
the DAF process.

The most commonly used inorganic polymers are the
polyacrylamides. Chemical flocculant concentrations used normally
range from 100 to 500 mg/l.

(One mg/l in 1 million gallons per day is
8.34 lbs of material.) The wastewater pH may need to be adjusted
between 4.5 and 5.5 for the ferric compounds or between 5.5 and
6.5 for the aluminum compounds using an acid such as H2SO4 or a
base such as NaOH.

In many applications, the DAF effluent
requires pH adjustment utilizing a base such as NaOH to assure the
DAF effluent pH is within the limits specified by the POTW (6-9
typically).

Float Dewatering DAF float often contains 2 to l0 percent
solids.

The solids may need to be dewatered before disposal to
reduce the sludge volume by reducing water content.

Float
dewatering is usually performed by using one of the following
technologies: Filter press, Belt filter press, Centrifuge, Drying bed or
Vacuum precoat filter.

Attachment of most of the bubbles to solid particles can be effected
through surface energies while others are trapped by the solids or
by hydrous oxide flocs as the floc spreads out in the water column.
Colloidal solids are normally too small to allow formation of
sufficient air-particle bonding.

They must first be coagulated by a
chemical such as the aluminum or iron compounds mentioned
above and then absorbed by the hydrous metal oxide floc
generated by these compounds.

Frequently, a coagulant aid is
required in combination with the flocculant to agglomerate the
hydrous oxide flocc, increase particle size and improve the rate of
flotation. Mechanical/chemical emulsions can also be broken
through pH and polymer reactions.

Where the float is to be used to feed animals used for human
consumption, organic compounds such as chitosan, carrageenan,
and lignosulfonic acid, or their derivatives can be used. Use only
compounds approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Office of Veterinary Medicine.

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