عدد المساهمات : 3507
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/09/2009
العمر : 49
الموقع : مصر
|موضوع: المعالجة الطبيعية وكيفية تعيين قدرة المواتير والطلمبات والمعدات السبت مارس 24, 2012 3:21 pm|| |
technolab el-bahaa group
MOTORS, COUPLING and DRIVE MECHANISMS
1. Operators must be able to define resistance, RPM (revolutions per minute),
amperage wattage, voltage, phase, ground, kilowatt-hours, alternating current
(AC), direct current (DC), brake horsepower, single and three phase, neutral, hot
wire, ground fault, and motor efficiency.
2. Operators must be able to inspect an operating electrical motor to verify that it is
running normally, with no excessive heat or vibration.
3. Operators must be able to measure for proper motor operating temperatures, as
specified on motor data plates and proper rotation and alignment.
4. Operators must be able to properly service all accessible lube points in a motor.
5. Operators must understand how to re-start motors using a proper sequence in
order to avoid damage or excessive power draw.
6. Operators must be able to explain the following additional functions of couplings:
a. Accommodation of shaft misalignment;
b. Electrical insulation;
c. Simplification of maintenance;
d. Dampening of vibration; and
e. Use of shear pins for torque overload protection.
7. For all belt driven equipment, operators must be able to locate and describe the
functions of the following components:
a. Belt guards;
c. Sheaves (pulleys); and
d. Drive and pump shafts.
8. Operators must be able to describe all of the main types of “hub” mounting
procedures for attaching coupling to shafts, including slip-fit, press-fit, shrink-fit,
tapered shaft, or tapered bushing.
9 For variable speed reducers, operators must be able to ensure that the vent plug
is not clogged with dirt or grease. Also, operators must be able to replace belts
and adjust belt tension in variable speed reducers.
a. With variable speed reducers, operators must understand that, in order to
prevent damage to the drive belt and movable pulley, speed changes are
made only while equipment is running.
b. For all speed reducers, operators must know proper oil change intervals and
the location of all lubrication points. In addition, operators should be able to
carry out all required lubrication and be able to explain why the grade of oil or
grease called for in each application has been specified.
10. Operators must be able to specify the location and type of each bearing or gear in
clarifiers and chain drives and must be able to specify a lubrication program for
each of them.
11. Operators must be able to inspect lubrication levels, drive alignment, and
assembly integrity of clarifier units prior to starting up or returning them to service.
1. Operators must be able to identify and describe the principles of operation for
each of the following types of positive displacement pumps:
a. Rotary (including gear, screw, and progressive cavity);
b. Reciprocating (including diaphragm, piston, and plunger).
2. Operators must be able to identify and describe the principles of operation for
each of the following types of pumps:
d. Progressive cavity;
3. For centrifugal pumps, operators must be able to explain the function of each of
c. Lantern ring;
d. Wear ring (or plate);
e. Stuffing box;
f. Packing gland;
i. Mechanical seal;
j. Shaft sleeve; and
k. Cut tip.
4. For positive displacement pumps, operators must be able to define the function of
each of the following:
a. Check valve;
b. Stroke adjustment knob;
5. Operators must be able to define:
b. Lock out;
g. Friction loss;
h. Series operation;
i. Parallel operation;
k. Air bind;
m. Suction head, discharge head, total dynamic head (TDH), and net positive
suction head (NPSH).
6. Operators must be able to diagnose the need for pump repacking by observing
the rate of weepage and adjustment potential remaining on a pump’s packing
gland. Operators must also be able to demonstrate proper repacking techniques.
7. Operators should be able to disassemble a pump to the extent necessary to
troubleshoot pump efficiency problems and replace worn internal parts such as
seals, sleeves, impellers, and wear rings.
8. Operators must be able to prime installed in suction lift condition for repriming a
pump that has lost prime or become air locked.
9. Operators must be able safely to drain and flush pumps in which septicity is likely,
due to residual sewage being contained in the volute or connecting pipes.
10. Because blowers and compressors are similar to pumps in construction and
operation, the skills listed here are usually applicable to those pieces of
equipment. Operators must be able to recognize and describe the principles of
operation of the main types of compressors, including rotary lobe, rotary vane,
and piston. For compressors and blowers, operators must be able to clean and
maintain (or replace) air intake filters; locate and maintain pressure relief valves
and pressure switches; and identify and maintain support equipment such as
moisture traps, air dryers, and regulators.
11. Operators must be able to explain why valves located on the discharge side of all
pumps, particularly positive displacement pumps, must be open and /or operable
(for example, check valves) before start-up. (Note: this excludes centrifugal
blowers.) Operators must also understand why no valves should be closed until a
positive displacement pump has been shut down, come to rest, and been locked
12. For gate valves and other manually adjustable flow control valves, operators must
know the full open point, full closed point, normal operating point, and proper
throttling technique, if appropriate.
13. Operators should understand how labeling systems are used to distinguish
individual piping systems (including electrical conduit).
14. Operators should understand the different types of piping materials and chemical
HYDRAULIC AND FLOW MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
1. Operators must be able to explain the importance of maintaining unrestricted
hydraulic flow above, in and below a flume.
2. To ensure that a weir is providing accurate flow data, operators must be able to
define, locate, and describe the significance of the following: head behind weir,
weir crest, and nappe (the overflowing sheet of water).
3. For sharp-crested weirs, operators must be able to explain why the proper
orientation of the weir plate always places the level on the downstream side.
4. Given relevant hydraulic data and flume or weir flow tables, operators must be
able to measure flow through a flume or weir.
5. Operators must be able to maintain equipment and flow logs that make it
immediately obvious when data from measurement devices are unusual or well
outside of expected values.
6. For all passive flow measurement devices, operators must be able to follow
appropriate maintenance programs such as algae removal, leakage prevention
and grease removal.
7. Operators must know the regulations concerning flow meter calibration to check
accuracy of flow meters.
8. Operators must know to check flow rates at a time of representative flow.
9. Operators must know what a staff gauge is and how to use it.
10. Operators must know the typical uses and operational parameters for the
following flow measuring devices:
a. Parshall flume;
c. Venturi flow tube;
d. Magnetic meter;
e. Transient time ultrasonic;
f. Doppler ultrasonic;
k. Float operated system.
INSTRUMENTATION (Meters, Alarms and Control Systems
1. Operators must be able to recognize the units of measurement used on the
scales or gauges of meters.
2. Operators must be able to calibrate, use and maintain the following portable test
a. Pressure gauges, both compound and vacuum;
c. DO, pH, and Cl2 residual meters; and atmospheric monitoring devices
3. Operators must be able to describe the general design principles of each major
type of control system, including pneumatic, float, hydraulic, electrical, and timing
4. For any alarm system which is activated in a facility, operators must be able to
respond by identifying the specific cause triggering the alarm and then solving the
problem or identifying and contacting those who can.
5. Operators must be able to establish and maintain correct parameters within which
their control systems operate, or have sufficient access to manufacturers’
literature or technical representatives to be able to easily establish such
6. Operators should be able to specify an expected range (reading) under normal
operating conditions for each meter or gauge in their facility or facilities.
7. Operators must be able to test alarm systems under non-emergency conditions,
and be able to develop and implement a schedule of performance tests which will
ensure proper operational status at all times.
8. For each alarm system in their facility or facilities, operators must be able to
specify purpose, location of sensor, signal sending unit, signal receiving unit, and
all modes of the alarm signal (sonic, visual, electronic, or telemetric). In addition,
operators must be able to demonstrate reset procedures.
9. Operators must be able to diagram the reporting chain or network through which
to communicate the need for emergency response procedures when an alarm
system indicates an emergency situation (e.g., fire, major chemical spill, or
10. In the event of suspected malfunctions, operators must be able to contact by
telephone the manufacturer or manufacturer’s representative for any emergency
alarm system in their facility